Chapter 3 The health effects of active smoking


3.0 Introduction

3.1 Smoking and heart disease

3.2 Respiratory diseases (excluding lung cancer)

3.3 Smoking and cancer

3.4 Lung cancer

3.5 Other cancers

3.6 Reproductive health

3.7 Pregnancy and smoking

3.8 Child health and maternal smoking before and after birth

3.9 Increased susceptibility to infection in smokers

3.10 Eye diseases

3.11 Dental diseases

3.12 Gastro-intestinal diseases

3.13 Musculoskeletal diseases

3.14 Skin

3.15 The impact of smoking on treatment of disease

3.16 Smoking and diabetes

3.17 Inflammatory conditions and autoimmune disease

3.18 Other conditions with possible links to smoking

3.19 Smoking and accidents

3.20 Tobacco poisoning

3.21 Health effects for younger smokers

3.22 Poorer quality of life and loss of function

3.23 Smoking, dementia and cognitive decline

3.24 Genetic influences on tobacco-caused disease

3.25 Smoking compared with or in combination with other pollutants

3.26 Health effects of brands of tobacco products which claim or imply, delivery of lower levels of tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide

3.27 Health effects of smoking tobacco in other forms

3.28 Health 'benefits' of smoking?

3.29 Smoking and body weight

3.30 Deaths attributable to tobacco by disease category

3.31 Morbidity and mortality due to tobacco-caused disease and socio-economic disadvantage

3.32 Health effects of smoking other substances

3.33 Health effects of chewing tobacco, and of other smokeless tobacco products

3.34 Public perceptions of tobacco as a drug, and knowledge and beliefs about the health consequences of smoking

3.35 Health and other benefits of quitting

3.36 The global tobacco pandemic


Updated 2015 by Dr Elizabeth Greenhalgh

Fourth edition (2012) updated by Bill Bellew; Associate Professor Tom Briffa; Carolyn Ford; Professor Susan Hurley; 
Tessa Letcher; Clinical Associate Professor Matthew Peters; and Kate Purcell 

Third edition (2008) drafted by Margaret Winstanley