9A.5 People experiencing incarceration

Last update:  November 2023

Suggested citation: Puljevic, C, Jenkins, S, Greenhalgh, EM, & Scollo, MM. 9.A.5 People experiencing incarceration. In Greenhalgh, EM, Scollo, MM and Winstanley, MH [editors]. Tobacco in Australia: Facts and issues. Melbourne: Cancer Council Victoria; 2023. Available from:  https://www.tobaccoinaustralia.org.au/chapter-9-disadvantage/in-depth/9a5_people-experiencing-incarceration 


9A.5.1 Trends in the prevalence of smoking

Traditionally, the prevalence of smoking among people experiencing incarceration has been far higher than among the general population.1,2 While smoking has decreased substantially over time in the Australian general community, the same is not true for people in custody, whose smoking rates, in facilities which allow smoking, remain high.3 In June 2022, there were about 41,000 adult prisoners in Australia; 93% of prison entrants at this time were men.4 Over half (51%–70%) of prison entrants aged 18–44 were daily smokers,3 compared with less than one in eight (7%–11%) people in the general community.5 Almost three in four (71%) of all Australian prison entrants reported being current smokers, and 86% reported having smoked at some stage in their life. Only 13% of prison entrants reported never having smoked, while 14% were ex-smokers. The average age of taking up smoking was 14, although several prisoners reported that they began smoking as young as four. Upon entry, female prison entrants (75%) were more likely than male prison entrants (70%) to report they were current smokers. Entrants aged 35–44 were most likely to report being current smokers (76%), with those aged 45 and over the least likely at 61%.3 Similar trends are observed internationally; a systematic review found that rates of smoking among people experiencing incarceration exceed community rates 1.04 to 62.6-fold.6

9A.5.2 Contribution of smoking to health outcomes and social inequality

Prisoners experience poorer physical and mental health than the general population. In 2022, almost two in five (39%) of Australian prison entrants reported a long-term health condition or disability that limited their daily activities and/or affected their participation in education or employment. A similar proportion (42%) reported having a current chronic condition. Smoking-related illnesses such as asthma, cardiovascular disease, pulmonary disease, diabetes, and cancer were among the most common conditions. Just over half (51%) of prison entrants reported ever having been told they have a mental health disorder, including alcohol and drug abuse.3 See Section 9A.3 for a detailed overview of the relationship between smoking and mental illness, as well as alcohol and substance use disorders, and Chapter 1, Section 1.10.6 for other drug use.

Epidemiological studies confirm that people who have been in prison experience higher rates of smoking-related illness, including various forms of cancer,7-10 hypertension,8 liver disease,7 asthma,8  and cardiovascular disease,11 further exacerbating their already increased levels of mortality and morbidity when compared to the general population.12-14 A study of over 85,000 people released from New South Wales prisons between 1988 and 2002 found a significantly higher rate of death from smoking-related cancers compared to the general community.9 Similarly, a study conducted in all state prisons in the US in 2014 found significantly higher age-adjusted smoking attributable mortality and potential life years lost as a result of tobacco smoking when compared to the non-incarcerated population.11

9A.5.3 Explanations for higher smoking prevalence

The primary reason for high rates of smoking among people experiencing incarceration is that smoking is common among groups over-represented in the prison population, including those of lower socioeconomic status, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, people with mental health disorders, people with substance use disorders, and people experiencing homelessness.3 For example, in 2021, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people accounted for almost one-third (30%) of the total prisoner population (while only comprising 3.8% of the Australian population).15,16 Tobacco use has historically been commonly accepted as part of prison life,2 serving a variety of purposes such as a form of currency,17,18 a stress or boredom reliever,18-22 or a common ground for socialising.23 Other reasons for these high smoking rates among prisoners include a lack of smoking cessation programs in prisons (as well as an overall lack of these programs in the community), a lack of evidence regarding best practice for smoking cessation in this population group, and confusion over ownership of the issue between health departments and custodial authorities.20

Prior to entering prison, many inmates had experienced lifetime exposure to cigarette smoking through their primary caregivers and friends.24 The average age at which Australian prison entrants had their first cigarette was 14 in 2022,3 compared with 17 in the general population in 2019.25 A 2016 qualitative study in the US found many prisoners who smoked reported not having been taught by their family members about the dangers of smoking, rather it was more common that these family members themselves were smokers.24 One study found an association between heavy smoking among prisoners and past adverse childhood events such as alcoholism in the family, a psychiatric condition in the family, physical abuse, parental neglect and parental divorce.26 Factors within the prison environment that can increase prisoners’ likelihood of smoking include stress, boredom, lack of social support, high smoking rates among prisoners and staff, shared cells, relationship building between prisoners, and the use of tobacco as currency.27

9A.5.4 Interventions for reducing smoking

Despite very high smoking rates, and about one in eight (14%) prison entrants having successfully quit smoking in the past, many detainees express an interest in quitting. In 2022, almost half of  (48%) prison entrants who were current smokers wanted to quit. Of the of prison entrants who wanted to quit smoking, about two in five (41%) thought nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) would help, 27% thought a quit program would help, 25% thought counselling would help, and one-third (36%) said they did not want any help to quit. Upon exiting prison, dischargees, who were current smokers on entry, were asked what cessation assistance they had utilised while in prison. One in 10  had utilised NRT, 2% used another type of smoking cessation medication, 3% had discussions with a doctor or nurse, 2% had utilised another form of counselling/support and 4% had not wanted help to quit.3

Barriers to quitting in this population have included a strong smoking culture in prison; the role of tobacco as a de facto currency and common ground for socialising; high levels of nicotine dependence; mental illness; limited access to nicotine replacement therapy and cessation programs; boredom; and stressful events such as prison transfer, or family and legal stressors.17-19, 22, 23 Further problems include a lack of evidence for best practice for smoking cessation in this group, confusion over the ownership of the problem between the health department and custodial authorities, and poor access to smoking cessation programmes while outside the prison system.2,18,20,29 In 2011, the National Preventative Health Strategy30 identified the prison population as a priority area for future interventions. Similarly, the subsequent  National Tobacco Strategies  recognised prisons as an important setting for tobacco control efforts and that continued leadership is required to reduce the prevalence of smoking among prisoners, recently released prisoners, prison staff and their families.31,32 The 2022–2030 National Tobacco Strategy, in particular highlights that culturally appropriate cessation support should be provided for Aboriginal and Torres Islander people in prisons.32 As of November 2023, all Australian territories and states (except Western Australia) have introduced or announced intentions to introduce complete smoking bans in prisons. International studies have found that these bans are effective at improving the health of people who live and work in prisons.12, 33-38 For example, a survey of all state prisons in the US found a 9% reduction in smoking-related deaths in prisons that had implemented a smoking ban, and prisons with bans in place for longer than nine years showed an 11% reduction in all smoking-related deaths, a 19% decrease in deaths from cancer, and a 34% reduction in deaths with pulmonary causes.12 Other studies have found that these bans result in improved air quality,39-43 reduced exposure to harmful second-hand smoke,44 and decreased in-prison dispensing of medication for smoking-related illnesses45

Prior to the implementation of bans in Australia, prisoners were provided with access to intensive cessation support,46 including free nicotine patches and access to Quitline, but this support was discontinued in most jurisdictions within a few months of the ban’s implementation. Access to nicotine replacement therapy remains limited in Australia’s smoke-free prisons, partly due to prisoners creating substitute cigarettes from nicotine patches47 or lozenges.48 In The health of people in Australia’s prisons 2022 report, about one-third (29%) of dischargees from prisons that had banned smoking said they were current smokers, compared with more than four in five (83%) of dischargees from prisons which allowed smoking. However, there was only a six percentage point difference between prison dischargees’ intentions to smoke upon release from prisons that had banned smoking and prisons which allowed smoking (48% and 54% respectively).3

Systematic reviews in 201849 and 202250 of smoking following release from smokefree prisons found a high and rapid rate of smoking relapse among dischargees. This was reflected in findings from a study showing that 72% of a sample of people released from Queensland prisons resumed smoking on the day of release, with 94% relapsing within two months of release.51 A 2016 qualitative study24 from the US found many transitional housing facilities were not smokefree properties, and dischargees from smokefree prisons would relapse due to cigarettes being readily available in these environments. Family members also play an important role in whether prison dischargees are able to remain smoke-free upon release. Seventy per cent of study participants said having family members who smoked influenced their own smoking behaviours during the re-entry process.24

Systematic reviews from 201652 and 20186 similarly found indoor bans on smoking in prisons to have little impact on prisoner smoking behaviour, with prisoners who had experienced a ban typically resuming smoking shortly after release. The 2018 systematic review also concluded that evidence-based interventions for smoking cessation found to be effective outside prisons are effective inside too, and that effects persist after release.6 These effective interventions included in-person delivery of motivational interviewing (to boost intention to remain abstinent post-release)49 and/or cognitive behavioural therapy.53, 54 Multi-component interventions using a combination of behavioural support and smoking-cessation pharmacotherapy have also been found to maximise chances of sustained cessation,49, 52 and there is limited evidence suggesting that refraining from risky drinking may assist in remaining quit post-release.55

A systematic review also found that smoking bans in combination with multi-component interventions that supported people in prisons and other facilities pre- and post-discharge were associated with higher cessation rates post-discharge.37 Findings from a Queensland-based qualitative study suggest that interventions promoting continued smoking abstinence among people exiting smoke-free prisons should focus on targeting the perceived individual- and environmental-level barriers to maintained smoking abstinence, including pre-release intention to resume smoking, normalisation of smoking in home or social environments, resumption of smoking as a symbolic act of freedom and resistance from and to a restrictive environment, a perception that smoking provides stress relief, and the use of smoking to cope with cravings experienced on release for illicit substances.56 Despite the availability of smoking cessation pharmacotherapy (SCP) at a heavily subsidised rate in Australia, once released, only a small proportion of prison dischargees go on to use SCP, pointing to a missed opportunity in this vulnerable community.57  While maintaining support for dischargees post release is important for successful smoking abstinence, this support has typically fallen outside the scope of the implementation of smokefree prisons.57 Findings from a 2019 pilot study in Victoria Australia suggest more intensive support (provided before and after release) is required in order to reduce post-release relapse to smoking and to encourage those who do relapse to make further quit attempts.58 Finally, there is some limited evidence from the UK that the provision of e-cigarettes may assist to maintain smoking abstinence during incarceration.59, 60

Relevant news and research

For recent news items and research on this topic, click  here. ( Last updated June 2024)


1. Awofeso N, Testaz R, Wyper S, and Morris S. Smoking prevalence in New South Wales correctional facilities, 2000. Tobacco Control, 2001; 10(1):84–5. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11347537

2. Belcher JM, Butler T, Richmond RL, Wodak AD, and Wilhelm K. Smoking and its correlates in an Australian prisoner population. Drug and Alcohol Review, 2006; 25(4):343–8. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16854660

3. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. The health of people in Australia's prisons 2022. Canberra: AIHW, 2023. Available from: https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/prisoners/the-health-of-people-in-australias-prisons-2022.

4. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Prisoners in Australia. ABS Website, 2022. Available from: https://www.abs.gov.au/statistics/people/crime-and-justice/prisoners-australia/latest-release.

5. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Alcohol, tobacco & other drugs in Australia, in AIHW, Australian Government2023. Available from: https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/alcohol/alcohol-tobacco-other-drugs-australia/contents/summary.

6. Spaulding AC, Eldridge GD, Chico CE, Morisseau N, Drobeniuc A, et al. Smoking in correctional settings worldwide: Prevalence, bans, and interventions. Epidemiologic Reviews, 2018; 40(1):82–95. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29746635

7. Rosen DL, Schoenbach VJ, and Wohl DA. All-cause and cause-specific mortality among men released from state prison, 1980-2005. American Journal of Public Health, 2008; 98(12):2278–84. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18923131

8. Binswanger IA, Krueger PM, and Steiner JF. Prevalence of chronic medical conditions among jail and prison inmates in the USA compared with the general population. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 2009; 63(11):912–9. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19648129

9. Kariminia A, Butler T, Corben S, Levy M, Grant L, et al. Extreme cause-specific mortality in a cohort of adult prisoners--1988 to 2002: a data-linkage study. Int J Epidemiol, 2007; 36(2):310–6. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17158524

10. Carbonnaux M, Fossard G, Amzallag E, Piegay C, Perot E, et al. Earlier onset and poor prognosis of lung cancer in imprisoned patients. Oncology, 2013; 85(6):370–7. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24335502

11. Binswanger IA, Stern MF, Deyo RA, Heagerty PJ, Cheadle A, et al. Release from prison--a high risk of death for former inmates. New England Journal of Medicine, 2007; 356(2):157–65. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17215533

12. Binswanger IA, Carson EA, Krueger PM, Mueller SR, Steiner JF, et al. Prison tobacco control policies and deaths from smoking in United States prisons: population based retrospective analysis. British Medical Journal, 2014; 349:g4542. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25097186

13. Richmond RL, Indig D, Butler TG, Wilhelm KA, Archer VA, et al. Smoking and other drug characteristics of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal prisoners in Australia. J Addict, 2013; 2013:516342. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24940513

14. Fazel S and Baillargeon J. The health of prisoners. Lancet, 2011; 377(9769):956–65. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21093904

15. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Prisoners in Australia, in ABS Website2021. Available from: https://www.abs.gov.au/statistics/people/crime-and-justice/prisoners-australia/2021.

16. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Estimates of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, in ABS Website2021. Available from: https://www.abs.gov.au/statistics/people/aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islander-peoples/estimates-aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islander-australians/30-june-2021#cite-window1.

17. Lankenau SE. Smoke 'Em If You Got 'Em: Cigarette Black Markets in U.S. Prisons and Jails. Prison J, 2001; 81(2):142–61. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18064295

18. Richmond R, Butler T, Wilhelm K, Wodak A, Cunningham M, et al. Tobacco in prisons: a focus group study. Tobacco Control, 2009; 18(3):176–82. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19188210

19. Butler T and Milner L. The 2001 New South Wales Inmate Health Survey. Justice Health NSW, 2001. Available from: http://www.justicehealth.nsw.gov.au/publications/inmate-health-survey-2001.pdf.

20. Butler T, Richmond R, Belcher J, Wilhelm K, and Wodak A. Should smoking be banned in prisons? Tobacco Control, 2007; 16(5):291–3. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17897977

21. Richmond RL, Butler T, Belcher JM, Wodak A, Wilhelm KA, et al. Promoting smoking cessation among prisoners: feasibility of a multi-component intervention. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 2006; 30(5):474–8. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17073232

22. Sieminska A, Jassem E, and Konopa K. Prisoners' attitudes towards cigarette smoking and smoking cessation: a questionnaire study in Poland. BMC Public Health, 2006; 6:181. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16827930

23. Cullen F. ‘Two's up and poncing fags’: young women's smoking practices, reciprocity and friendship. Gender and Education, 2010; 22(5):491–504. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1080/09540250903481595

24. Valera P, Bachman L, and Rucker AJ. A qualitative study of smoking behaviors among newly released justice-involved men and women in New York City. Health & Social Work, 2016; 41(2):121–8. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27263202

25. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Data tables: National Drug Strategy Household Survey 2019 - 2. Tobacco smoking chapter, Supplementary data tables. Canberra: AIHW, 2020. Available from: https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/illicit-use-of-drugs/national-drug-strategy-household-survey-2019/data.

26. Papadodima SA, Sakelliadis EI, Sergentanis TN, Giotakos O, Sergentanis IN, et al. Smoking in prison: a hierarchical approach at the crossroad of personality and childhood events. European Journal of Public Health, 2010; 20(4):470–4. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20034931

27. Mackay A. Stubbing out smoking in prisons: Bans are an ineffective mechanism. Alternative Law Journal, 2014; 39(2):99–103. Available from: http://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?handle=hein.journals/alterlj39&div=28&id=&page

28. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. The health of Australia’s prisoners 2018. AIHW, Cat. no. PHE 246 Canberra 2019. Available from: https://www.aihw.gov.au/getmedia/2e92f007-453d-48a1-9c6b-4c9531cf0371/aihw-phe-246.pdf.aspx?inline=true.

29. Baker A, Ivers R, Bowman J, Butler T, Kay-Lambkin F, et al. Where there's smoke, there's fire: high prevalence of smoking among some sub-populations and recommendations for intervention. Drug and Alcohol Review, 2006; 25:85–96. Available from: http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~content=a741424195~db=all~order=page

30. National Preventative Health Taskforce. Australia: the healthiest country by 2020. National Preventative Health Strategy, Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia 2009. Available from: https://extranet.who.int/nutrition/gina/sites/default/filesstore/AUS%202009%20National%20Preventative%20Health%20Strategy.pdf

31. Intergovernmental Committee on Drugs, National Tobacco Strategy 2012–2018. Commonwealth of Australia; 2012.

32. National Tobacco Strategy 2022-2030. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia, 2023. Available from: https://www.health.gov.au/sites/default/files/2023-05/national-tobacco-strategy-2023-2030.pdf.

33. Dickert J, Williams JM, Reeves R, Gara M, and DeBilio L. Decreased mortality rates of inmates with mental illness after a tobacco-free prison policy. Psychiatric Services, 2015; 66(9):975–9. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25975892

34. Clarke JG, Martin SA, Martin RA, Stein LA, van den Berg JJ, et al. Changes in smoking-related symptoms during enforced abstinence of incarceration. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 2015; 26(1):106–18. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25702731

35. Connell R. Tobacco-free prison policies and health outcomes among inmates, 2010, University of Kentucky. Available from: https://uknowledge.uky.edu/gradschool_diss/22/.

36. Heng CK, Badner VM, Clemens DL, Mercer LT, and Mercer DW. The relationship of cigarette smoking to postoperative complications from dental extractions among female inmates. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod, 2007; 104(6):757–62. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17764988

37. McMeekin N, Wu O, Boyd KA, Brown A, Tweed EJ, et al. Implementation of a national smoke-free prison policy: an economic evaluation within the Tobacco in Prisons (TIPs) study. Tob Control, 2022. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/35256533

38. Tweed EJ, Mackay DF, Boyd KA, Brown A, Byrne T, et al. Evaluation of a national smoke-free prisons policy using medication dispensing: an interrupted time-series analysis. Lancet Public Health, 2021. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/34537108

39. Semple S, Dobson R, Sweeting H, Brown A, Hunt K, et al. The impact of implementation of a national smoke-free prisons policy on indoor air quality: results from the Tobacco in Prisons study. Tobacco Control, 2020; 29(2):234–6. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31064866

40. Hammond SK and Emmons KM. Inmate exposure to secondhand smoke in correctional facilities and the impact of smoking restrictions. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol, 2005; 15(3):205–11. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15187988

41. Proescholdbell SK, Foley KL, Johnson J, and Malek SH. Indoor air quality in prisons before and after implementation of a smoking ban law. Tobacco Control, 2008; 17(2):123–7. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18285386

42. Ritter C, Huynh CK, Etter JF, and Elger BS. Exposure to tobacco smoke before and after a partial smoking ban in prison: indoor air quality measures. Tobacco Control, 2012; 21(5):488–91. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21836161

43. Thornley S, Dirks KN, Edwards R, Woodward A, and Marshall R. Indoor air pollution levels were halved as a result of a national tobacco ban in a New Zealand prison. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2013; 15(2):343–7. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22589420

44. Demou E, Dobson R, Sweeting H, Brown A, Sidwell S, et al. From smoking-permitted to smokefree prisons: A 3-year evaluation of the changes in occupational exposure to second-hand smoke across a national prison system. Ann Work Expo Health, 2020; 64(9):959–69. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32756912

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48. Puljevic C, Coomber R, Kinner SA, de Andrade D, Mitchell C, et al. 'Teabacco': Smoking of nicotine-infused tea as an unintended consequence of prison smoking bans. Drug and Alcohol Review, 2018; 37(7):912–21. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30051520

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51. Puljevic C, de Andrade D, Coomber R, and Kinner SA. Relapse to smoking following release from smoke-free correctional facilities in Queensland, Australia. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2018; 187:127–33. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29660697

52. de Andrade D and Kinner SA. Systematic review of health and behavioural outcomes of smoking cessation interventions in prisons. Tobacco Control, 2016; 26(5):495–501. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27798322

53. Clarke JG, Stein LA, Martin RA, Martin SA, Parker D, et al. Forced smoking abstinence: not enough for smoking cessation. JAMA Internal Medicine, 2013; 173(9):789–94. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23567902

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55. Frank MR, Blumhagen R, Weitzenkamp D, Mueller SR, Beaty B, et al. Tobacco use among people who have been in prison: Relapse and factors associated with trying to quit. J Smok Cessat, 2017; 12(2):76–85. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29430256

56. Puljevic C, Coomber R, de Andrade D, and Kinner SA. Barriers and facilitators of maintained smoking abstinence following release from smoke-free prisons: A qualitative enquiry. Int J Drug Policy, 2019; 68:9–17. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30974331

57. Puljevic C, de Andrade D, Carroll M, Spittal MJ, and Kinner SA. Use of prescribed smoking cessation pharmacotherapy following release from prison: a prospective data linkage study. Tobacco Control, 2018; 27(4):474–8. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28848000

58. Young JT, Puljevic C, Love AD, Janca EK, Segan CJ, et al. Staying Quit After Release (SQuARe) trial protocol: a randomised controlled trial of a multicomponent intervention to maintain smoking abstinence after release from smoke-free prisons in Victoria, Australia. BMJ Open, 2019; 9(6):e027307. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31167867

59. Brown A, Mitchell D, and Hunt K. Post-implementation perspectives on smokefree prison policy: a qualitative study with staff and people in custody. European Journal of Public Health, 2022; 32(1):112–8. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/34448834

60. Brown A, O'Donnell R, Eadie D, Purves R, Sweeting H, et al. Initial views and experiences of vaping in prisons: A qualitative study with people in custody preparing for the imminent implementation of Scotland's prison smokefree policy. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2021; 23(3):543–9. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32447381