5.21 Reducing tobacco access and supply


Last updated:  September 2020

Suggested citation: Greenhalgh, EM., Hanley-Jones, S., Grace, C., Hagan, K., Scollo, M., Purcell, K. 5.21 Reducing tobacco access and supply. In Greenhalgh, EM, Scollo, MM and Winstanley, MH [editors]. Tobacco in Australia: Facts and issues. Melbourne: Cancer Council Victoria; 2020. Available from:  http://www.tobaccoinaustralia.org.au/chapter-5-uptake/5-21-reducing-tobacco-access-and-supply


Many tobacco control policies—such as high tobacco prices, advertising and promotion bans, and plain packaging—aim to reduce demand among smokers, however reducing supply may also be an important measure in reducing smoking rates. Reducing children’s access to tobacco, when part of a comprehensive suite of tobacco control policies, appears to reduce smoking among young people,1-3 although there is some debate in the literature as to the extent of its importance and effectiveness as a means of reducing uptake.4-9

5.21.1 How children access tobacco

In 2017, most (84% of) Australian secondary school students who currently smoke (smoke at least weekly) did not buy their last cigarette themselves. The most common way Australian adolescents accessed cigarettes was through friends (48% of current smokers aged 12–17), followed by purchasing the cigarettes themselves (16% of current smokers aged 12–17) and asking someone else to buy them (15% of current smokers aged 12–17).10 The likelihood of having made a personal purchase increased with age, from about 8% of 12‒15-year-olds, to about 21% of 16 ‒17-year-olds. Male student smokers in the 16‒17-year-old category were more likely to have bought their own cigarettes than female student smokers in the same age group.10 Figure 5.21.1 shows the percentage of current secondary school students buying cigarettes for themselves from 1987 to 2017, first for those age 12–15 years, and then for those age 16–17 years.



Figure 5.21.1
Percentage of current smokers aged 12 to 15 and 16 to 17 buying cigarettes for themselves, 1987 to 2017 

Sources: ASSAD surveys 1987 to 2017



As shown in Figure 5.21.1, the proportions of secondary school student current smokers in Australia purchasing cigarettes for themselves have declined substantially over time, particularly so for those in the younger age group.

5.21.2 Legislation banning sales to minors

Most countries around the world have long banned sales of tobacco products to children. Laws banning sales to minors—Australia

It is illegal to sell tobacco products to children under the age of 18 years in all states and territories of Australia. Legislation to restrict retailers from selling cigarettes to children was among the earliest tobacco control policies to be introduced in Australia—refer Table 5.21.1, column 1. Modern versions of these legislative provisions are included in tobacco control legislation in every state—refer Column 2.

Table 5.21.1 
Summary of legislation banning sales of tobacco products to minors—Australian states and territories 


First legislation banning sales to minors

Date legislation first introduced

Date minimum age for tobacco sales raised to 18 years

Section no. prohibiting sale of tobacco products to children under 18 in currently applicable legislation


Juvenile Smoking Suppression Act of 1903, section 2 – prohibited sale of tobacco to any person actually or apparently under the age of 16 years.i 

30 November 1903

26 April 1991 - under section 59 of the Public Health Act 1991 (NSW).ii  

Public Health (Tobacco) Act 2008 (NSW), section 22.


Juvenile Smoking Prevention Act 1906, section 2 – prohibited sale of tobacco to any person under the age of 16 years.iii  

11 September 1906

1 January 1994 - pursuant to section 4 of the Tobacco (Amendment) Act 1993 (Vic).iv 

Tobacco Act 1987 (Vic), section 12.


Juvenile Smoking Suppression Act 1905, section 2 prohibited sale of tobacco to any person under the age of 16 years.v  

24 November 1905

1998vi – pursuant to sections 10 and 11 of the Tobacco Products (Prevention of Supply to Children) Act 1998 (QLD).

Tobacco and Other Smoking Products Act 1998 (QLD)vii, sections 10 and 11.


Sale of Liquor and Tobacco Act 1916, section 10 – prohibited sale of tobacco to any person under the age of 18 years.viii  

2 March 1917

2 March 1917

Tobacco Products Control Act 2006 (WA), section 6.


The Children’s Protection Amendment Act 1904, section 2 – prohibited sale of tobacco to any child actually or apparently under the age of 16 years.ix  

24 November 1904

1997x – pursuant to section 38 of the Tobacco Products Regulation Act 1997xi (SA).

Tobacco Products Regulation Act 1997 (SA), section 38A.


Juvenile Smoking Suppression Act 1900, section 3 – prohibited sale of tobacco to any person under the age of 13 years.xii  

20 November 1900

1996xiii - pursuant to section 121C of the Public Health Act 1962 (Tas).

Public Health Act 1997 (TAS)xiv, section 64.


The Children’s Protection Amendment Act 1904 (SA), section 2 – prohibited sale of tobacco to any child actually or apparently under the age of 16 years.xv  

24 November 1904

24 November 1904

Tobacco Control Act (NT), section 42.


Juvenile Smoking Suppression Act of 1903 (NSW), section 2 – prohibited sale of tobacco to any person actually or apparently under the age of 16 years.xvi  

30 November 1903

1 January 1991 – pursuant to the Tobacco Act 1927.xvii

Tobacco and Other Smoking Products Act 1927, section 14.

i Available from:  https://www.legislation.nsw.gov.au/acts/1903-11.pdf 
ii Available from:  http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/nsw/repealed_act/pha1991126/
iii Available from:  http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/vic/hist_act/jspa1906320/
iv Available from:  http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/vic/hist_act/ta1993153/
v Available from:  https://www.legislation.qld.gov.au/LEGISLTN/REPEALED/J/JuvenileSmSuppA05_01_.pdf    
vi Precise date unknown.
vii Available from:  https://www.legislation.qld.gov.au/LEGISLTN/ACTS/1998/98AC001.pdf  
viii Available from:  https://www.slp.wa.gov.au/pco/prod/filestore.nsf/FileURL/mrdoc_13481.pdf/$FILE/Sale%20of%20Tobacco%20Act%201916%20-%20%5B00-00- 00%5D.pdf?OpenElement  
ix Available from:  http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/sa/num_act/tcpaa875o1904385/
x Precise date unknown.
xi Available from:  http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/sa/num_act/tpra26o1997339/
xii Available from:  http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/tas/num_act/tjssa190064vn27440/  
xiii Precise date unknown.
xiv As amended by the Public Health Amendment Act 1996 (Tas), available from:  http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/tas/num_act//phaa199649o1996252/phaa199649o1996252.pdf
xv From 1863 to 1911, the Northern Territory was annexed to South Australia. The Children’s Protection Amendment Act 1904 (SA) therefore also applied to the Northern Territory.
xvi Up until 1911, the ACT formed part of New South Wales. The Juvenile Smoking Suppression Act of 1903 (NSW) applied to the ACT up until 23 June 1927, when it was replaced by the Tobacco Ordinance 1927 (ACT). Section 10 of the Tobacco Ordinance 1927 prohibited the sale of tobacco products to children under the age of 16 years. A copy of the ordinance is available at:  http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/act/num_ord/to1927126/
xvii As amended by section 5 of the Tobacco Amendment Act 1990 (ACT), available from: http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/act/num_act/ta199039o1990199/

 Most states and territories have introduced strict proof-of-age requirements for the sale of tobacco, requiring the seller to request and sight approved photo ID to determine the age of a person attempting to purchase tobacco. Acceptable forms of photo ID generally include driver’s licence, passport or an official ‘proof-of-age’ card. Some jurisdictions prosecute retailers caught selling tobacco, while others have introduced an expiation system for these offences.

Efforts to more vigorously enforce laws banning the sale of tobacco to minors began in some states in the early 1990s. These efforts focused on monitoring compliance with the legislation, retailer education, issuing warning notices and where necessary, prosecution of offenders. Compliance monitoring and enforcement efforts generally utilised ‘controlled purchase activities’ where children attempt to purchase tobacco under the supervision of an adult.

Since 2011 all states and territories, except Queensland, have conducted random compliance monitoring activities as described above. While Queensland employs covert surveillance operations both opportunistically, and in response to complaints to monitor and enforce the legislation. Future directions for minimum age laws in Australia

While data from the National Drug Strategy Household Survey 2019 show most smokers started smoking before the age of 18 (64.2%) , the proportion of people smoking their first full cigarette after the age of 18 (18-49 years) increased significantly in 2019 (35.8%) compared to 2016 (31.4%). Moreover, the proportion of people smoking their first full cigarette aged 13 years or younger significantly decreased in 2019 (15.3%), down 2.7 percentage points from 2016 (18.0%).11 The  proportion of Australians who have ever smoked a full cigarette, who did so when they were over the age of 18, has almost doubled since 2001—refer Section 5.19.  A number of Australian public health experts, politicians, philanthropists and health groups have proposed that the minimum purchasing age for tobacco should be raised.12-19 See Section 5.21.3 (below) for an overview of evidence for this approach.

Findings from the National Drug Strategy Household Survey, 2019 show that the majority of Australian’s aged 14 years and over support raising the legal age for sale or supply of tobacco products from 18 to 21 years or over (63.1%+/- 0.9%). xviii20 This support was stronger among females (65.9%+/- 1.1), than males (60.3%+/-1.3%), and stronger among Australia’s older population, aged 70+ (69.5%+/- 1.9), than among those 30-39 years (66%+/- 1.9%) or 15–24 years (55.9%+/-2.8%). Never-smokers (69.3%+/- 1,1%) and ex-smokers (57.7%+/-1.6%) also showed stronger support for raising the legal age than did current smokers (44.6%+/-2.4%).20 A 2020 research paper examining public support for Tobacco 21 laws using data from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey found strong support (65%) among current and former Australian smokers for raising the minimum age of purchase for tobacco products from 18 years to 21 years, with a large majority of those in support aged over 20 years.21

Australian state and territory ministers have been investigating proposals to raise the minimum age to 21 for the purchase of tobacco in recent years. 22 A Tobacco 21 Bill is currently, as of August 2020, being considered by Tasmania’s legislative council.23 Under the proposed legislation, the legal age for Tasmanians to buy tobacco products would be lifted from 18 to 21 incrementally over a three year period.24 Table 5.21.1 sets out data from Australian Institute of Health and Welfare’s 2019 National Drug Strategy Household Survey on the level of public support for raising the minimum age for sale of cigarettes from 18 to 21 in each Australian state and territory.

xviii Margin of error calculated by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (equivalent to the width of a 95% confidence interval). Refer explanatory notes, reference 7.

Table 5.21.1 Level of support for raising the legal age for sale or supply of tobacco products

to those aged 21 years and over, 2019—all Australian state and territories and Australia




























Source: Data tables: National Drug Strategy Household Survey 2019 – Table S.46 S. State fact sheet supplementary tables. Cat. no. PHE 270 Canberra: AIHW, 2020. Available from: https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/illicit-use-of-drugs/national-drug-strategy-household-survey-2019/data

Table 5.21.1 shows that in 2019 almost two-thirds of Australians 14 years and over supported raising the minimum age to 18 years. International approaches to banning sales to minors

The large majority of countries have implemented a minimum tobacco purchase age of 18.25

In the US, Tobacco 21 legislation was signed on December 20, 2019, to amend the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, raising the US federal minimum age for sale of tobacco products from 18 to 21 years.26 The new US federal minimum age of sale applies to all retail establishments and persons with no exceptions, making it illegal for a retailer to sell any tobacco product—including cigarettes, cigars, and e-cigarettes—to anyone under 21.26 Such legislation is supported by the majority of the public,21,27,28 including by young people.29,30 Interestingly, restricting the sale and use of tobacco to individuals 21 years and over was common throughout the late 19th and early 20th centuries in the US, but these laws were eroded over time to between 16 and 18 years, largely due to tobacco industry lobbying.31

A number of other countries, including Honduras, Kuwait, Samoa, Sri Lanka, Uganda,  Mongolia, Ethiopia, Philippines and Singapore (pending January 2021) have also implemented a minimum legal age of purchasing tobacco at 21.25,32 While in Japan and Thailand the minimum legal age of purchasing tobacco is 20.32

Among a range of possible future options, proposals for raising the minimum age of tobacco access are being considered in Canada33 and the UK.34

5.21.3 Effectiveness of sales to minors laws in reducing uptake

Widespread availability and access to tobacco products can promote perceptions among young people that smoking is more socially acceptable, and less harmful, than is the case,35 and can in turn increase their likelihood of smoking.9,36 In contrast to arguments that sales restrictions could make tobacco more appealing to young people (as ‘forbidden fruit’),37 research has shown continued declines in smoking prevalence among young people during a sustained period of enforcement of such legislation.38-40  

Overall, weak legislation and ineffective enforcement lead to poorer retailer compliance, and have minimal effect on youth smoking rates.7-9 Conversely, strong laws and enforcement programs reduce illegal sales and can contribute to reductions in smoking among young people.8,9,41-43

To be effective, legislative measures to reduce access need to:7, 44

  • be regularly enforced, in order to ensure high compliance rates
  • involve a penalty that is not so low that it will not act as a deterrent, but not so high that it is not supported by community attitudes
  • be uniform so that minors cannot avoid them by shopping elsewhere.

The impact of such laws is further strengthened when they are part of a comprehensive set of tobacco control measures that increase the price of tobacco products and denormalise smoking.45,46

An Australian study examined the impact of sustained and vigorous enforcement of sales to minors legislation and found that effective enforcement was accompanied by a substantial reduction in attempted purchases of tobacco and of smoking by young people. The impact of the intervention also increased with time. 7 Another Australian study over a 15-year period found that stricter controls on underage access to cigarettes were associated with lower smoking prevalence (although this relationship became non-significant after adjusting for other policies, demographics and survey year, possibly due to an absence of information on the strength of enforcement).47

The US Institute of Medicine (IOM) produced a report into the Public Health Implications of Raising the Minimum Age of Legal Access to Tobacco Products in 201545 It considered the policy options for raising the minimum legal age for tobacco to 19, 21 and 25 nationally.

The report stated that concerns about adolescent vulnerability to addiction and immaturity of judgement justifies an underage access restriction. Regarding the age at which access to tobacco should become legal, evidence suggests that capabilities related to mature judgement, especially in situations that are emotionally charged and where peer influence plays a role, are still developing into the early 20s. Young people in their late teens and early 20s might also be at elevated risk, neuro-developmentally speaking, of becoming addicted to nicotine. Data strongly suggest that if someone is not a regular tobacco user by 25 years, it is highly unlikely they will become one.

Experience with raising the minimum legal age for alcohol in the US from 18 to 21 is instructive for tobacco control. It has led to reductions in the use of alcohol and concomitant harms such as car accidents in the underage population. Underage drinking still occurs, but raising the minimum legal age together with rigorous enforcement and penalties for violations has been associated with this and other improved outcomes. Changing the minimum legal age for tobacco would help to change norms about acceptability of use, but this effect may take time to build.

The IOM report concludes that increasing the minimum age for tobacco would be likely to prevent or delay initiation of use by adolescents and young adults. Although changes will directly pertain to individuals age 18 and over, the largest proportionate reduction in the initiation of tobacco use will likely occur among adolescents 15 to 17 years old. Modelling commissioned by the Institute of Medicine found that raising the minimum legal age would lead to approximately a 3% decrease in smoking prevalence for an minimum legal age of 19, a 12% decrease for a minimum legal age of 21 and a 16% decrease for a minimum legal age of 25, above and beyond the decrease predicted in the status quo scenario. There is greater certainty on the figures pertaining to minimum legal ages of 19 and 21, compared to 25, due to the greater level of extrapolation needed.

Although the full benefits of preventing initiation of tobacco use would take decades to accrue, some direct health benefits, including those from reduced secondhand smoke exposure, would be immediate.

Since the IOM report, ‘real-world’ evaluations of the impact of increasing the tobacco purchase age from 18 to 21 have been published. One study looked at data from Needham, Massachusetts, which in 2005 became the first town in the US to raise the minimum tobacco sales age to 21. It found that following implementation of the law, smoking and cigarette purchases declined significantly more in Needham relative to 16 comparison communities, and concluded that this approach has the potential to reduce youth access and initiation.48 However, an evaluation in New York City (which introduced the law in 2014) concluded that increasing the minimum purchase age to 21 years did not accelerate reductions in tobacco use by young people any more rapidly than declines observed in comparison sites. The authors note that such laws may need to be placed in context; minimum purchase age laws may have larger effects over a longer time period, or in places with weaker existing tobacco control policies.49 A 2019 study in the US that examined the relationship between local tobacco-21 policies and smoking among 18- to 20-year-olds from 2011 to 2016 found a 1.2 percentage point drop in the likelihood of being a current established smoker following implementation of tobacco-21 policies.50

An editorial in the American Journal of Public Health has considered ways in which the impact of such laws could be maximised.51 Adequate enforcement is particularly important; findings from New York City showed no increase in ID checks following the new law.49 Other strategies could include:

  • Increasing random compliance check inspections
  • Identifying high-priority locations to address youth access to tobacco, especially in areas where tobacco retail density is high
  • Levying maximum penalties for each infraction to help deter illegal sales and to defray the cost of enforcement activities
  • Publicising fines and license suspensions
  • Revoking and then retiring the license to sell tobacco when multiple infractions occur
  • Pursuing maximum criminal penalties for illicit tobacco suppliers
  • Continuing to study such laws in real-world settings to optimise effectiveness.51

5.21.4 Retailer density and uptake

Greater density of tobacco retailers has been suggested as an important factor in the uptake of smoking. Tobacco retailer density and proximity are associated with adolescent smoking behaviours and susceptibility.52 Areas that are more densely populated with tobacco retailers may promote adolescent smok­ing not only by increasing access but also by increasing environmental cues to smoke.2 A 2018 meta-analysis exploring the association between tobacco outlet density arounds homes and schools and adolescents’ past-month cigarette smoking found higher tobacco outlet density around homes, more so than schools, was associated with significant increased odds of past-month smoking.53 The researchers illustrate that for each subsequent tobacco outlet near adolescents’ homes the odds of having smoked in the past month increased 8%.53 A 2020 study found that, among other environmental factors, the sale of cigarettes near schools was positively associated with current smoking among Nigerian adolescents.54 Tobacco control advocates have called for limitations to be placed on the number of tobacco retail outlets, particularly around schools. For example, zoning restrictions or licencing schemes may be used to restrict the availability and visibility of cigarettes around young people.2 ,55-57 See Section 11.9 for a detailed discussion of retailer density and licencing, and their relationships with smoking behaviours among young people.

5.21.5 Proposals to phase out legal sale of tobacco products

‘Tobacco free generation’ proposals advocate banning supply of tobacco to those born in or after a specified year. Such proposals claim that minimum age laws are deficient, in that they may create a ‘rite of passage’ for smoking, or reduce perceptions of the harmfulness of smoking.58

In March 2015 the Tasmanian Parliament debated draft legislation (the Public Health Amendment (Tobacco-free Generation/TFG) Bill 2014) that would have made it illegal, from 2018, to supply tobacco to everyone born after 2000. The Bill was introduced by an independent member of the Legislative Council, Ivan Dean, and aimed to create a generation of people not exposed to tobacco products. It was one of the most significant global attempts at the time to slowly phase out cigarette smoking.

The draft legislation was widely supported by Tasmanian health organisations, while being vigorously opposed by tobacco companies, which claimed that the regulations would have been difficult to manage and enforce.59,60  In October 2015 a Parliamentary committee was considering its workability,61 and in 2017 the Tasmanian Government released a report outlining its decision not to proceed with the Tobacco Free Generation Bill, stating, ‘While the Government commends the intent of the TFG Bill, it continues to hold concerns about its workability and practicality and does not believe that imposing an effective ban on tobacco sales over time is the most realistic way to approach the need to reduce smoking rates’.62

 Cancer Council Queensland also proposed banning tobacco sales to those born after 2001, and the Queensland health minister expressed openness to the measure.63 The Norwegian Medical Association has similarly proposed a ban on the sale of tobacco products to anyone born after 2000, however the proposal was not perceived as feasible by the government.64

In 2019, legislation was proposed in Hawaii that, had it passed, would have seen the minimum age for purchase of tobacco gradually rise to 100. The Bill, put forward by Democratic state representative Richard Creagan, proposed incremental increases to the legal age of purchase, from the current age of 21, to 30 by 2020, 40 by 2021, 50 by 2022, 60 by 2023, and then 100 by 2024, effectively banning the sale of cigarettes on Hawaii. The proposal was not passed at the time.65

5.21.6 Legislative restrictions for possession, use, or purchase of tobacco by minors

In the US, state legislation restricting sale of tobacco to minors often includes legislative restrictions for possession, use or purchase of tobacco by minors, however these laws (sometimes referred to as ‘PUP laws’) appear to have little impact on reducing smoking prevalence. One study found no difference in smoking rates between the control and experimental group but did report more young people in the control group smoking more than 20 cigarettes per day.66,67 Many tobacco-control experts in Australia have recommended caution in regard to this policy approach, arguing that rather than placing the onus on the seller, such laws criminalise purchases by young people, which may have other negative unforeseen consequences.

5.21.7 Tobacco industry approaches

The tobacco industry in Australia and overseas has championed programs aimed at educating tobacco retailers and the general public about sales to minors regulations (see Chapter 10, Section 10.13.1), initiatives thought by critics to be more likely to serve industry ends than to improve public health.68

Relevant news and research

For recent news items and research on this topic, click  here. ( Last updated March 2024)


1. Forster J, Murray D, Wolfson M, Blaine T, Wagenaar A, et al. The effects of community policies to reduce youth access to tobacco. Tobacco Control, 1998; 88(8):1193–8. Available from: http://www.ajph.org/cgi/reprint/88/8/1193

2. US Department of Health and Human Services. Preventing tobacco use among young people: A report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2012. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/sgr/2012/.

3. US Department of Health and Human Services. Preventing tobacco use among young people: A report of the Surgeon General, 1994. Atlanta, Georgia: Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Office on Smoking and Health, 1994. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/sgr/sgr_1994/index.htm.

4. Craig MJ and Boris NW. Youth tobacco access restrictions: Time to shift resources to other interventions? Health Promotion Practice, 2007; 8:22–7. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16840766

5. Lantz PM, Jacobson PD, Warner KE, Wasserman J, Pollack HA, et al. Investing in youth tobacco control: A review of smoking prevention and control strategies. Tobacco Control, 2000; 9(1):47–63. Available from: http://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/9/1/47

6. Glantz SA. Preventing tobacco use - the youth access trap. American Journal of Public Health, 1996; 86(2):156–8. Available from: http://www.ajph.org/cgi/reprint/86/2/156

7. Tutt D, Bauer L, and DiFranza J. Restricting the retail supply of tobacco to minors. Journal of Public Health Policy, 2009; 30(1):68–82. Available from: http://www.palgrave-journals.com/jphp/journal/v30/n1/full/jphp200844a.html

8. Richardson L, Hemsing N, Greaves L, Assanand S, Allen P, et al. Preventing smoking in young people: A systematic review of the impact of access interventions. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2009; 6(4):1485–514. Available from: http://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/6/4/1485/pdf

9. Botello-Harbaum M, Haynie D, Iannotti R, Wang J, Gase L, et al. Tobacco control policy and adolescent cigarette smoking status in the United States. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 2009; 11(7):875–85. Available from: http://ntr.oxfordjournals.org/content/11/7/875.full

10. Guerin N and White V. Australian secondary school students alcohol and drug (ASSAD) survey 2017 second edition. Melbourne: Cancer Council Victoria, 2020. Available from: https://www.health.gov.au/resources/collections/australian-secondary-school-students-alcohol-and-drug-assad-survey-2017.

11. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Data tables: National Drug Strategy Household Survey 2019 - 2 tobacco smoking supplementary tables. Canberra: AIHW, 2020. Available from: https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/illicit-use-of-drugs/national-drug-strategy-household-survey-2019/data.

12. Magnusson RS. Time to raise the minimum purchasing age for tobacco in Australia. Medical Journal of Australia, 2016; 204(6):220–1. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27031393

13. Maynard R. Australian philanthropist Andrew Forrest demands tobacco ban for under-21s. The Times, 2017. Available from: https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/australian-philanthropist-andrew-forrest-demands-tobacco-ban-for-under-21s-6t0lmk5kz

14. No authors listed. Oncologists want smoking age raised to 21. SBS News, 2017. Available from: https://www.sbs.com.au/news/oncologists-want-smoking-age-raised-to-21

15. No authors listed. Nick Xenophon pledges to raise legal smoking age. the New Daily, 2017. Available from: https://thenewdaily.com.au/news/state/sa/2018/01/30/nick-xenophon-smoking-age/

16. No authors listed. Tobacco expert's opinion slammed. Launceston Examiner, 2019; (4). Available from: https://customreport.mediaportal.com/#/articlepresenter/e7f2ee1e-31b5-471c-bcc4-f163acad6034/533415470/1256064003?_k=bafw0n

17. No authors listed. Tobacco 21 Bill 'on the table'. Launceston Examiner, 2019; (8). Available from: https://customreport.mediaportal.com/#/articlepresenter/22d8bf56-a292-4aa7-a387-14bb53604bdf/529682912/1244748150?_k=z1ln7t

18. McPhee E. Push to raise the smoking age from 18 to 21 to cut cancer rates – as the ciggie hotspots of Australia are revealed. Daily Mail, 2019. Available from: https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-7088913/Smoking-age-lifted-18-21.html

19. Bailey S. US smoking expert urges Tasmanian tobacco reform The Advocate, 2019. Available from: https://www.theadvocate.com.au/story/6437565/us-smoking-expert-urges-tasmanian-tobacco-reform/

20. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. National Drug Strategy Household Survey (NDSHS) 2019 key findings and data tables. Canberra: AIHW, 2020. Available from: https://www.aihw.gov.au/getmedia/3564474e-f7ad-461c-b918-7f8de03d1294/aihw-phe-270-NDSHS-2019.pdf.aspx?inline=true.

21. Hawkins SS, Chung-Hall J, Craig L, Fong GT, Borland R, et al. Support for minimum legal sales age laws set to age 21 across Australia, Canada, England and US: Findings from the 2018 ITC four country smoking and vaping survey. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 2020. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntaa119

22. Borys S. Proposal to lift the smoking age to be considered by health experts. ABC, 2018. Available from: http://www.abc.net.au/radio/programs/am/proposal-to-lift-the-smoking-age-to-be-considered/9658718

23. Maloney M. A look at what Tasmanian parliament will debate in 2020. The Examiner, 2019. Available from: https://www.examiner.com.au/story/6559127/proposed-laws-for-2020/

24. Bailey S. MLC puts Tasmanian smoking legislation on hold Macquarie Port News, 2019. Available from: https://www.portnews.com.au/story/6316195/tasmanian-smoking-legislation-on-hold/

25. Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids. Global resources. Available from: https://www.tobaccofreekids.org/global-resources

26. US Food & Drug Administration. Tobacco 21. FDA, 2020. Available from: https://www.fda.gov/tobacco-products/retail-sales-tobacco-products/tobacco-21

27. Lee JG, Boynton MH, Richardson A, Jarman K, Ranney LM, et al. Raising the legal age of tobacco sales: Policy support and trust in government, 2014-2015, US. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2016. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27263054

28. Morain SR, Garson A, and Raphael JL. State-level support for Tobacco 21 laws: Results of a 5-state survey. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 2017. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29059407

29. Dai H. Attitudes toward Tobacco 21 among US youth. Pediatrics, 2017. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28630116

30. Kowitt SD, Schmidt AM, Myers AE, and Goldstein AO. Should the legal age for tobacco be raised? Results from a national sample of adolescents. Preventing Chronic Disease, 2017; 14:E112. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29144895

31. Apollonio DE and Glantz SA. Minimum ages of legal access for tobacco in the United States from 1863 to 2015. American Journal of Public Health, 2016:e1–e8. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27196658

32. No authors listed. Find by policy. Tobacco Control laws, 2020. Available from: https://www.tobaccocontrollaws.org/legislation/finder/#_sales_restrictions

33. Seizing the opportunity: The future of tobacco control in Canada.  2017. Available from: https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/hc-sc/documents/programs/future-tobacco-control/future-tobacco-control-consultation-eng.pdf.

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