Thank you to the Canadian Cancer Society for compiling this information over several years,1-4 to Tobacco Free Kids for expanding on and further updating this information5, 6 and to the World Health Organization for its 2016 global status report updated in October 2018.7 This section combines information from all three sources and additional information that has become available since publication of the WHO report.
Australia's legislation has been applauded by respected commentators in tobacco control8, 9 and by international health authorities.10 It has also strengthened the resolve of several other governments to follow Australia's example. As of March 2022, plain packaging laws have been adopted and are in force in 23 jurisdictions—see Table 11A6.1. Legislation is being considered by parliaments in six countries, and is going through a formal process of consideration in a further four. Political commitments have been made in at least six countries.
11A6.1 Laws adopted and in force
Following the lead of Australia (December 2012), plain packaging has been required at the retail level in France and Monaco (since January 2017), the United Kingdom (since May 2017), Norway (since July 2018 ), New Zealand and the Cook Islands (since June 2018), Ireland (since September 2018), Saudi Arabia (since May 2019), Thailand and Uruguay (since September 2019), Slovenia, Turkey and Israel (since January 2020), Canada (since February, 2020), Singapore (since July 2020), Belgium (since January 2021), the Netherlands (since October 2021), Hungary (from Jan 2022), Denmark (from April 2022), Myanmar, Guernsey and Jersey (from July 2022) and Finland (from May 2023).
Plain packaging: implementation summary, March 2022
Details of legislation now in force
France – Plain packaging legislation was adopted December 17, 2015.11, 12 This legislation was upheld on January 21, 2016 by France’s Constitutional Council.13 On December 23, 2016, the Council of State (France’s highest administrative court) dismissed legal challenges.14 An implementing Decree7 and Decision15 were adopted March 21, 2016, and a further Decree adopted August 11, 2016.16 On July 20, 2015, France hosted a 10-country ministerial meeting on plain packaging.17, 18 Packs started appearing on the market in France in May 2016 and all packs were plain by January 2017. A related piece of legislation in France, Decree No 20116-117 of 11, allows the Minister to outlaw specified ‘promotional brand names’ (brand names with characteristics/connotations that promote smoking). On the 6 August 2018, the French Conseil d’Etat (Council of State) referred to the European Court of Justice a request to the Prime Minister by the Federation of Cigar Manufacturers, to repeal this Decree.19
United Kingdom – Plain packaging regulations were approved March 16, 201520 and came into force May 20, 2016, applying to England, Wales7 Northern Ireland7 and Scotland.21 On May 19, 2016, a tobacco industry legal challenge was dismissed, with an appeal dismissed by the Court of Appeal on November 30, 2016, and with application for leave to appeal to the UK Supreme Court dismissed April 12, 2017.22, 23
New Zealand – Plain packaging legislation was adopted September 14, 2016 and regulations approved June 6, 2017. Packs came onto the market from March 18, 2018 at the manufacturer level and June 6 at the retailer level.24-26
Norway – Plain packaging legislation was adopted February 10, 2017 and regulations were adopted June 22, 2017.27 Plain packs have been required from July 1, 2017 at the manufacturer level and July 1 2018 at the retailer level.28-32 On November 6, 2017, the Oslo District Court dismissed an attempt to suspend implementation of plain packaging requirements applying to snuff, pending the outcome of a legal challenge.33
Ireland – Plain packaging legislation was enacted March 10, 2015,34-37 amended February 16, 2017.38 Packs have been required to be plain since September 30, 2017 at manufacturer level and September 30, 2018 at the retailer level.39
Cook Islands – Plain packaging in practice; packages same as in New Zealand, since June 20183
Monaco – Plain packaging in practice; packages same as in France, since January 20173
Saudi Arabia – In October 2018, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia notified the World Trade Organization of its intention to adopt plain packaging regulations.40 On the 17th December 2018, plain packaging legislation was entered into force, with the Saudi Food and Drug Authority giving manufacturers and importers of tobacco products a grace period until 1st May 2019.41
Thailand – A Thailand government representative stated that plain packaging was under consideration in November 2015.5, 42 An Act containing regulatory authority to require plain packaging was gazetted April 2, 2017 and came into effect on July 4, 2017.5, 43 The necessary regulations were approved by the Public Health Ministry on November 14, 2018.44 All tobacco products were required to comply with the legislation by September 2019.45
Uruguay – Uruguay’s President stated on November 24, 2015 and reiterated on Jul 8, 2016 that plain packaging was being considered.46, 47 A Philip Morris legal claim under a bilateral Switzerland-Uruguay investment agreement was dismissed on July 8, 2016, regarding significant packaging restrictions (though not plain packaging).48 Subsequently, on July 13, 2016, the Health Minister stated that a plain packaging law was being developed and would be implemented in 2017.49 A Government bill providing enabling authority to require plain packaging was introduced in the Senate November 6, 2017 and referred to the Public Health Committee November 7, 2017.50, 51 A Presidential decree was subsequently issued and the Ministry then issued an ordinance to implement it.3 On December 21, 2018 Uruguay became the first country in Latin America to require plain packaging for tobacco products following the president’s signature of the legislation, with an implementation date of December 21, 2019.52
Slovenia – Act adopted February 15, 2017 requires plain packaging effective January 1, 2020, and required the Minister of Health to adopt a plain packaging regulation by September 8, 2017.53, 54 The laws were subsequently adopted April 2019, for implementation January 1, 2020.55
Turkey – Plain packaging was included in the Government’s national action plan for 2015-2018.56 In August, 2016, the Health Minister stated that plain packaging was under consideration.57 On Feb. 9, 2017, he stated ‘we have completed preparations for the introduction of plain packaging’.58 A plain packaging bill was put to the Turkish Parliament on 30th October 201859 and following discussions in November60 on 5th December 2018, Turkey introduced new plain packaging rules for tobacco, via Law Number 7151.61 Detailed regulation were adopted on March 1, 2019 which required plain packaging to be implemented at the manufacturer level by July 5th, 2019 and at the retailer level by January 5th, 2020.62 On June 27th, 2019 the regulations were amended to postpone the implementation at the manufacturer level to December 5th, 2019.63
Israel – On January 8, 2019 Israel's Parliament passed new rules relating to the marketing and advertising of tobacco products. Health warnings must comprise between 30%-65% of the package size (depending on the tobacco product), and the remaining area of the packaging, for all brands, will be in Pantone 448C (described as "drab dark brown"). The new regulations came into force on January 8th, 2020.64
Canada – Plain packaging was recommended in 1994 by the House of Commons Standing Committee on Health.65 The Liberal Government elected October 19, 2015 committed in electoral platform to implement plain packaging.66 On November 13, 2015, the Prime Minister’s mandate letter to the Minister of Health included plain packaging as a ‘top priority’.67 On May 31, 2016, Health Minister Jane Philpott launched a public consultation ending August 31, 2016.68, 69 A government bill, Bill S-5, to elaborate on regulatory authority for plain packaging was approved by the Senate on June 1, 2017, received first reading in the House of Commons on June 15, 201770 and was adopted May 23, 2018. On May 1, 2019, the Health Minister reported that plain packaging would be introduced nationwide on November 9, 2019, with full implementation by February 7, 2020. In order to increase the size of the health warning, packages must be a slide-and-shell design, rather than the smaller, narrower flip-top design.71
Singapore – On Dec. 29, 2015, Singapore launched a public consultation on plain packaging ending March 29, 2016.72, 73 On March 9, 2017, the Senior Minister of State for Health stated that a further public consultation would be held in 2017.7 On February 4, 2018, Singapore launched a public consultation ending March 16, 2018.7, 74 The Ministry of Health announced on 31 October 2018 that it will propose amendments to the Tobacco (Control of Advertisements and Sale) Act (Cap. 309) in early 2019 to introduce plain packaging into Singapore.75 On July 1st, 2019, Singapore published the Tobacco (Control of Advertisements and Sale) (Appearance, Packaging and Labelling) Regulations 2019, to come into effect July 1, 2020 at both the manufacturer and retail levels. The regulations mandate plain packaging and an increase in the size of picture warnings from 50% to 75% effective July 1, 2020. A series of 6 different picture warnings is required.76
Belgium – The Public Health Minister announced April 9, 2016 that Belgium was to have plain packaging by 2019.5, 77 He announced September 7, 2018 that plain packaging would be legislated for after the required EU notification process. In April 2019, the decree was adopted. The new legal requirements are applicable on all tobacco products put on the Belgian market from 1st January 2020. Retailers had 12 months (until 31 December 2020) to sell their remaining old stock.78, 79
Netherlands – Plain packaging was implemented in the Netherlands on the 1st October, 2020. Cigarettes and rolling tobacco are sold in dark green-brown packaging without logos, with the brand and variant names in a standard typeface, and with a graphic health warning. Retailers were able to sell existing stock until October 1st 2021, while new products must have plain packaging. For other products, such as cigars and e-cigarettes, plain packaging was required from 1 January 2022.80
Hungary – On Aug 16, 2016, Hungary adopted a Decree to require plain packaging. New brands registered after Apr 30, 2016 and placed on the market from August 20, 2016 had to be sold in retail in plain packs. Brands that were registered after April 2016 but were already on the market prior to August 2016 had until May 20, 2018 to be sold at retail in plain packs. The implementation date of plain packaging for brands that existed before April 2016 was originally scheduled for May 20th, 2019, but was postponed to January 1st, 2022. 81-84
Denmark – On the 12th of December 2020 the Minister of Health and Elderly Affairs announced amendments to Denmark’s Tobacco Products Act including the implementation of plain packaging. Manufacturers must implement the new requirements from July 1st 2021, meanwhile retailers are able to sell existing stock until April 1st 2022, after which time all tobacco products (except cigars and pipe tobacco) as well as herbal smoking products, e-cigarettes and refills (regardless of whether they contain nicotine) must be sold in plain packaging.85, 86
Myanmar – On the 12th of October Myanmar’s Ministry of Health announced the adoption of plain packaging for tobacco products.87 Manufacturers must implement the new requirements from April 10th 2022, meanwhile retailers may sell existing noncompliant stock until July 9th, 2022.88
Guernsey and Jersey (self-governing islands (British Crown Dependencies) located in the English Channel) – On the 18th of May 2021 Guernsey’s Committee for Health & Social Care announced the Tobacco Advertising and Related Activities (Guernsey) Regulations 2021. On the 30th of June 2021 Jersey’s States Assembly announced the Restriction on Smoking (Standardised Packaging and Labelling) (Jersey) Regulations 2021, in line with Guernsey’s regulations. The regulations introduce plain packaging for tobacco products from July 31st, 2021 in both Islands. Retailers have 12 months (until July 31st, 2022) to sell existing cigarette and loose tobacco stock, and 24 months (until July 31st, 2023) to sell other tobacco stock (e.g. cigars and cigarillos).89-91
Finland – Plain packaging was included in the Finnish Government national action plan on tobacco (June 2014) as a planned measure.5 On the 16th of March, 2022 the Finnish Parliament approved a bill amending the Finnish Tobacco Act. The amendments include the introduction of plain packaging for tobacco products from May 2023.92
11A6.2 Laws adopted but not yet in force
Plain packaging legislation has been passed in Georgia, Mauritius, and Romania.
Georgia – Legislation was adopted on May 30, 2017 with regulatory authority to require plain packaging.93 The legislation required that a Decree must be adopted by July 2017 and implemented by January 2018, however this has so far not occurred.5
Mauritius – On November 1, 2018, the Cabinet of Ministers of Mauritius approved the introduction of plain packaging. The text reads as follows:
“Cabinet has taken note of the introduction of Plain Packaging of Tobacco Products in Mauritius in June 2019, in line with the Guidelines for the implementation of Articles 11 and 13 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control which Mauritius ratified in 2004. The objectives of plain packaging are to –
(a) reduce the attractiveness of tobacco products;
(b) eliminate the effects of tobacco packaging as a form of advertising and promotion;
(c) address package design techniques that may suggest that some products are less harmful than others; and
(d) increase the noticeability and effectiveness of pictorial health warnings.”
The plan was to develop regulations to enact the June 2019 implementation target.94
Romania – A law adopted November 4, 2016 includes a provision authorizing government to adopt decision requiring plain packaging95 but regulations have so far not been adopted.
11A.6.3 Legislation being considered by Parliaments
Plain packaging legislation is drafted and before Parliaments in Brasil, Chile, Ecuador, Panama, South Africa and Turkey.
Brasil – Five different plain packaging bills have been introduced in the Senate and House of Representatives, most recently in May 2016.5
Chile – A bill was approved by Senate, July 9, 2015, and forwarded to House of Deputies.96 This was approved by the House Health Committee January 22 2018 and was forwarded to House Agricultural Committee.3
Ecuador – A bill for plain packaging was introduced to the National Assembly on August 3, 2016 and was assigned to the health committee.5
Panama – A Bill was introduced to the National Assembly on January 2013. A sub-committee recommended removal making reference to World Trade Organization’s Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS ) agreement, but no further action was taken.5
South Africa – The South African Health Minister stated July 24, 2014 that he wanted to implement plain packaging,7 and stated March 18, 201597 and May 31, 201698 that legislation will be introduced in Parliament. In November, 2017, the Health Minister stated a draft bill would be submitted to Cabinet in early 2018.99 A bill was published May 9, 2018 with consultation period ending August 9, 2018. The Bill contained regulatory authority for introduction of plain packaging .75
11A.6.4 Plain packaging under formal government consideration
Plain packaging legislation is or has been under formal consideration in Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden and Taiwan.
Spain – On March 11, 2021 the Spanish Minister of Health announced that a comprehensive tobacco prevention and control plan was being developed that would include plain packaging.100
Sri Lanka – On November 7, 2016, the Sri Lankan President stated that Minister of Health is proposing to introduce plain packaging “in the near future.”101, 102 On April 11, 2018 Government announced that Cabinet had authorised drafting of legislation.3
Sweden – The Swedish Minister of Health directed the committee examining implementation of the EU Tobacco Product Directive to also consider plain packaging. This was subsequently recommended by the health committee but raised constitutional issues. The Government has yet to propose a bill in response and action seems unlikely in the short to medium term.5
Taiwan – On February 13, 2017, the Taiwanese Government provided notification of a draft bill containing regulatory authority to require plain packaging.103
11A.6.5 Countries in which political commitments to plain packaging have been given
Expressions of support for implementation of plain packaging have also been made by the governments of 104 Botswana,105 Gambia, Kenya,106 Malaysia, Nepal, and the United Arab Emirates.
Botswana – On May 21, 2016, the Minister of Health announced government intentions to introduce plain packaging.5
Gambia –The Minister of Health and Welfare stated on August 2, 2016 that his Ministry supported plain packaging and the Government of The Gambia would soon be passing laws requiring it.5
Kenya – On May 31, 2016, the Cabinet Secretary for Health announced that a formal plan and timeline for implementation would be developed.
Malaysia – On March 21, 2016, the Health Minister said no implementation date would be announced until talks with tobacco companies on intellectual property had concluded.5
Nepal – On May 8, 2017, Minister of Health announced that Nepal would have plain packaging by 2018.107-109
United Arab Emirates –The Ministry of Health announced in February 2014 that it intended to introduce legislation that would include plain packaging.5
11A6.6 Other relevant law
East Timor –A Ministerial Diploma on the labelling of tobacco products came into force on May 13, 2018, which requires that all surfaces not covered by health warnings are coloured grey aluminium and that the brand/logo only appear on the front outer surface (the Diploma also stipulates new GHWs covering 100% of the back surface and 85% of the front surface – the largest in the world). Any text or logos must be white; however, because a logo is allowed and the brand name may appear in a stylised font, the requirements are not a full plain packaging policy.110
European Union – A new Tobacco Products Directive adopted April 3, 2014 explicitly states that 28 EU countries have the option of implementing plain packaging, a provision upheld on May 4, 2016 by the European Court of Justice as valid when dismissing a tobacco industry legal challenge.111-113
Relevant news and research
For recent news items and research on this topic, click here. ( Last updated November 2021)
1. Canadian Cancer Society. Cigarette Package Health Warnings: International Status Report. , in Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids2014. Available from: http://www.tobaccofreekids.org/content/press_office/2014/2014_10_14_health_labels.pdf.
2. Canadian Cancer Society. International status report: Cigarette Package Health Warnings. 2016. Available from: http://www.tobaccolabels.ca/wp/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Cigarette-Package-Health-Warnings-International-Status-Report-English-CCS-Oct-2016.pdf.
3. Canadian Cancer Society. Cigarette Package Health Warnings: International Status Report. Sixth Edition, Canada 2018. Available from: http://www.cancer.ca/~/media/cancer.ca/CW/for%20media/Media%20releases/2018/CCS-international-warnings-report-2018---English---2-MB.pdf?la=fr-CA.
4. Canadian Cancer Society. Cigarette Package Health Warnings: International Status Report. 2021. Available from: https://cdn.cancer.ca/-/media/files/about-us/media-releases/2021/cigarette-health-warnings-report/ccs-international-warnings-report-2021.pdf.
5. Tobacco Free Kids. Standardized of plain tobacco packaging: international developments. Washington 2018. Available from: https://www.tobaccofreekids.org/plainpackaging/tools-resources/policy/international-developments.
6. Campaign for Tobacco-free Kids. Standardized or Plain Tobacco Packaging - International Developments. 2021. Available from: https://www.tobaccofreekids.org/assets/global/pdfs/en/standardized_packaging_developments_en.pdf.
7. World Health Organization and Secretariat WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Tobacco Plain packaging: global status update. Geneva: WHO, 2018. Available from: http://www.who.int/tobacco/publications/industry/tobacco-plain-packaging-global-status-update/en/.
8. West R. Preventing tobacco companies from advertising using their packaging could be an important component of comprehensive tobacco control: a commentary on Australia's plain packaging of cigarettes. Drug & Alcohol Review, 2012; 30(6):681-2. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21950467
9. Chapman S and Freeman B. From brand to bland--the demise of cigarette packaging. British Medical Journal, 2011; 343:d4376. Available from: http://www.bmj.com/content/343/bmj.d4376.long
10. Chan DM. WHO Director-General addresses tobacco conference: Keynote address at the World Conference on Tobacco or Health Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates 2015, World Health Organization: Geneva. Available from: http://www.who.int/dg/speeches/2015/trends-tobacco-use/en/.
11. Loi n° 2016-41 du 26 janvier 2016 de modernisation de notre système de santé. [Law n° 2016-41 of 26 January 2016 to modernize our health system] 2016; Available from: https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexte.do?cidTexte=JORFTEXT000031912641&dateTexte=&categorieLien=id.
12. Projet de loi relatif à la santé [Bill relating to health], no. 2302. deposited in National Assembly October 15, 2014 2016; Available from: http://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/14/dossiers/sante.asp.
13. Loi de modernisation de notre système de santé [Law to modernize our health system]. Decision n° 2015-727 DC of 21 January 2016; Available from: http://www.conseil-constitutionnel.fr/conseil-constitutionnel/francais/les-decisions/acces-par-date/decisions-depuis-1959/2016/2015-727-dc/decision-n-2015-727-dc-du-21-janvier-2016.146887.html.
14. Société JT International SA, Société d'exploitation industrielle des tabacs et des allumettes, société Philip Morris France SA et autres. Council of State, Dec. 23, 2016, Nos 399117, 399789, 399790, 399824, 399883, 399938, 399997, 402883, 403472, 403823, 404174, 404381, 404394 2016; Available from: http://www.conseil-etat.fr/Decisions-Avis-Publications/Decisions/Selection-des-decisions-faisant-l-objet-d-une-communication-particuliere/CE-23-decembre-2016-societe-JT-International-SA-Societe-d-exploitation-industrielle-des-tabacs-et-des-allumettes-societe-Philip-Morris-France-SA-et-autres.
15. Arrêté du 21 mars 2016 relatif aux conditions de neutralité et d’uniformisation des conditionnements et du papier des cigarettes et du tabac à rouler. NOR : AFSP1607269A [Decision of 21 March 2016 relating to conditions of plain and standardized packaging and cigarette paper and rolling tobacco] 2016; Available from: https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/jo_pdf.do?id=JORFTEXT000032276123.
16. Décret n° 2016-1117 du 11 août 2016 relatif à la fabrication, à la présentation, à la vente et à l'usage des produits du tabac, des produits du vapotage et des produits à fumer à base de plantes autres que le tabac (amends the Code de la santé publique [Public Health Code]). 2016; Available from: https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/eli/decret/2016/8/11/AFSP1612356D/jo.
17. Government of France. First ministerial meeting on plain tobacco packaging. 2015. Available from: http://www.social-sante.gouv.fr/IMG/pdf/150720_-_PS_-_Plain_Packaging_Meeting.pdf.
18. Plain packaging of tobacco products: a worldwide movement to address a global challenge, in Press kit, First ministerial meeting on plain tobacco packaging, Paris, July 20th, 2015, p.7.2015. Available from: http://www.social-sante.gouv.fr/IMG/pdf/150720_-_PK_-_Plain_Packaging_Meeting.pdf.
19. Conseil d’État France. Case C 517/18, Federation des fabricant de cigars v Premier ministre and Ministre des Solidarites et de la Sante. Official Journal of the European Union, 2018. Available from: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=uriserv:OJ.C_.2018.364.01.0009.01.ENG&toc=OJ:C:2018:364:TOC.
20. Children and Families Act 2014. Enabling legislation approved by Parliament March 13, no. 6, section 94 2014; Available from: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2014/6/pdfs/ukpga_20140006_en.pdf.
21. Scottish Government. Plain tobacco packaging in (news release) Jan 222015. Available from: http://news.scotland.gov.uk/News/Plain-tobacco-packaging-14da.aspx.
22. British American Tobacco & others v Department of Health. EWHC 1169 (Admin), England and Wales High Court of Justice, Queen’s Bench Division, Administrative Court, May 19 2016; Available from: https://www.judiciary.gov.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/bat-v-doh-summary.pdf.
23. British American Tobacco UK Ltd & Others v The Secretary of State for Health EWCA Civ 1182, November 30 2016; Available from: http://www.bailii.org/ew/cases/EWCA/Civ/2016/1182.html.
24. Smoke-free Environments (Tobacco Standardised Packaging) Amendment Act 2016. 2016 no 43, adopted Sept 14, 2016 2016; Available from: http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2016/0043/latest/DLM5821008.html.
25. Smoke-Free Environments Regulations 2017. LI 2017/123, approved June 6 2017; Available from: http://www.legislation.govt.nz/regulation/public/2017/0123/latest/whole.html?search=ts_act%40bill%40regulation%40deemedreg_smoke_resel_25_a&p=1#DLM7282702.
26. New Zealand Ministry of Health. Standardised Tobacco Products and Packaging Draft Regulations, in Consultation document May 312016. Available from: https://www.health.govt.nz/publication/standardised-tobacco-products-and-packaging-draft-regulations.
27. Regulations amending the regulation on content and labeling of tobacco products. FOR-2017-06-22-942, adopted June 22 2017; Available from: https://lovdata.no/dokument/SF/forskrift/2017-06-22-942?q=Tobakksskadeloven.
28. Bill 142L, in Law amending the Tobacco Control Act (implementation of Directive 2014/40 /EU and standardised tobacco packaging), June 102016. Available from: http://www.tobaccocontrollaws.org/files/live/Norway/Norway%20-%20Law%20Amd%27ing%20TC%20Act%20%282017%29.pdf.
29. Norwegian Ministry of Health and Care Services. Advertising-free tobacco packs from 1 July 2017, in Mar. 31, 2017 (news release) (Norwegian)2017. Available from: https://www.regjeringen.no/no/aktuelt/reklamefrie-tobakkspakninger-fra-1.-juli-2017/id2547043/.
30. Norwegian Ministry of Health and Care Services. Norway consults on standardised tobacco packaging and FCTC Article 5.3, in (press release) March 172015. Available from: https://www.regjeringen.no/en/aktuelt/norway-consults-on-standardised-tobacco-packaging-and-fctc-article-5.3/id2401001/.
31. Draft amendments to Act No. 14 of 9 March 1973 relating to Prevention of the Harmful Effects of Tobacco (Standardised packaging) and draft amendment to Regulations no 141 of 6 February 2003 on the contents and labelling of Tobacco products, in May 52015. Available from: http://ec.europa.eu/growth/tools-databases/tris/en/search/?trisaction=search.detail&year=2015&num=9009.
32. Norwegian Ministry of Health and Care Services. Towards a Tobacco-Free Generation, in May 31, 2016 (news release)2016. Available from: https://www.regjeringen.no/en/aktuelt/towards-a-tobacco-free-generation/id2502147/.
33. Swedish Match AB v. The Norwegian State, represented by the Ministry of Health and Care Services. Oslo District Court, Nov. 6 2017; Available from: https://www.domstol.no/globalassets/upload/obyf/internett/aktuelt/kjennelser/17-110415tvi_swedish-match-ab.pdf.
34. Public Health (Standardised Packaging of Tobacco) Act 2015. Number 4 of 2015, enacted March 10, 2015; Available from: http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/2015/act/4/enacted/en/print.html.
35. Public Health (Standardised Packaging of Tobacco) Act 2015. (Commencement) Order 2017, S.I. No. 115/2017, Mar. 29 2017; Available from: http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/2017/si/115/made/en/print.
36. Public Health (Standardised Packaging of Tobacco) Regulations 2017. S.I. No. 422 of 2017 2017; Available from: http://health.gov.ie/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/si422.pdf.
37. Public Health (Standardised Packaging of Tobacco) Bill 2014. Bill Number 54 of 2014 2014; Available from: http://www.oireachtas.ie/viewdoc.asp?DocID=26331&&CatID=59.
38. Health (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 2017. Number 1 of 2017, 2017; Available from: http://www.oireachtas.ie/documents/bills28/acts/2017/a0117.pdf.
39. Ireland Department of Health. Standardised Packaging of Tobacco to be signed into law, to come into force in September, in March 29, 2017 (news release)2017. Available from: http://health.gov.ie/blog/press-release/standardised-packaging-of-tobacco-to-be-signed-into-law-to-come-into-force-in-september/.
40. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Notification to World Trade Organization in accordance with Article 10.6,. Riyad, Saudi Arabia 2018.
41. World Health Organization. Saudi Arabia adopts plain packaging on tobacco products: A groundbreaking step for tobacco control, 2018. Available from: http://www.emro.who.int/tfi/news/saudi-arabia-adopts-plains-packaging-on-tobacco-products-a-groundbreaking-step-for-tobacco-control.html.
42. Deboonme A. Thailand faces tough fight on plain packaging, in The Nation2016. Available from: http://www.nationmultimedia.com/opinion/Thailand-faces-tough-fight-on-plain-packaging-30293004.html.
43. Tobacco Products Control Act of A.D. 2017. article 38 2017; Available from: http://www.tobaccocontrollaws.org/files/live/Thailand/Thailand%20-%20TC%20Act%202017.pdf.
44. Online reporters. Thailand to be Asia's first to enforce plain cigarette packs Bangkok Post, 2018. Available from: https://www.bangkokpost.com/lifestyle/family-and-health/1575750/thailand-to-be-asias-first-to-enforce-plain-cigarette-packs
45. No authors listed. Thailand adopts plain packaging for tobacco products, in Packaging Gateway2018. Available from: https://www.packaging-gateway.com/news/thailand-adopts-plain-packaging/.
46. Vázquez anunció más medidas para luchar contra el tabaquismo [Vazquez announces more measures to combat smoking], in El Diario, November 242015. Available from: http://eldiario.com.uy/2015/11/24/vazquez-anuncio-mas-medidas-para-luchar-contra-el-tabaquismo/.
47. Próxima etapa de la campaña antitabaco: las cajillas planas [Next stage in the anti-tobacco campaign: Plain packs], in El Pais, July 102016. Available from: http://www.elpais.com.uy/informacion/proxima-etapa-campana-antitabaco-cajillas.html.
48. Philip Morris Brands Sàrl, Philip Morris Products S.A. and Abal Hermanos S.A. v. Oriental Republic of Uruguay. International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes, ICSID Case No. ARB/10/7, July 8 2016; Available from: http://www.tobaccofreekids.org/content/press_office/2016/2016_07_08_uruguay.pdf.
49. Empaquetado genérico para reducir el atractivo del tabaco en 2017, in Espectador, July 132017. Available from: http://www.espectador.com/salud/338068/empaquetado-generico-para-reducir-el-atractivo-del-tabaco-en-2017.
50. Tabaco. Productos. Etiquetao. Empaquetado. Modificación. Bill 936/2017; Available from: https://parlamento.gub.uy/documentosyleyes/ficha-asunto/137365/ficha_completa.
51. International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. Uruguay set to become a world leader for restricting tobacco branding as plain packaging bill reaches Congress, in November 72017. Available from: https://www.theunion.org/news-centre/news/uruguay-set-to-become-a-world-leader-for-restricting-tobacco-branding-as-plain-packaging-bill-reaches-congress.
52. Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids IUATaLD. Uruguay Becomes First Country in Latin America to Adopt Plain Packaging, in Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids,2019. Available from: https://www.tobaccofreekids.org/press-releases/2019_01_16_uruguay.
53. The Restriction of the Use of Tobacco Products Act. Feb. 24 2017; Available from: http://www.tobaccocontrollaws.org/files/live/Slovenia/Slovenia%20-%20TC%20Act%202017.pdf.
54. Draft Act restricting the use of tobacco and related products, in provided to the European Commission on May 262016. Available from: http://ec.europa.eu/growth/tools-databases/tris/en/search/?trisaction=search.detail&year=2016&num=135.
55. Republic of Slovenia. Rules on the Plain Packaging Tobacco Products 2019. Available from: https://www.tobaccocontrollaws.org/files/live/Slovenia/Slovenia%20-%20Plain%20Pkg%20Rules%20-%20national.pdf.
56. Government of Turkey. Turkish National Tobacco Control Program and Plan of Action 2015-2018, in p.27, item 1.12015. Available from: http://www.thsk.gov.tr/dosya/birimler/tutun_mucadele_db/dokumanlar/29012015/ulusal-tutun-kontrol-programi-eylem-plani.pdf.
57. Youth smoking on rise as authorities mull measures, in Daily Sabah, August 272016. Available from: http://www.dailysabah.com/nation/2016/08/27/youth-smoking-on-rise-as-authorities-mull-measures.
58. World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Tobacco control activities in Turkey enter a new phase, with leaders looking to ensure sustainability, in Feb. 242017. Available from: http://www.euro.who.int/en/countries/turkey/news/news/2017/02/tobacco-control-activities-in-turkey-enter-a-new-phase,-with-leaders-looking-to-ensure-sustainability.
59. Elif Dagli. Plain Packaging bill finally at Turkish Parliament, Ms Kylie Lindorff, Editor 4 Nov 2018, Framework Convention Alliance.
60. Sigarada "düz paket"e bir adım daha yaklaşılıyor. 2018. Available from: https://www.aa.com.tr/tr/saglik/sigarada-duz-pakete-bir-adim-daha-yaklasiliyor/1302392
61. İzgi G and Altınay M. Turkey Launches Plain Packaging For Tobacco Products. Mondaq, 2018. Available from: http://www.mondaq.com/turkey/x/765212/food+drugs+law/Turkey+Launches+Plain+Packaging+For+Tobacco+Products
62. Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. Regulation on the Procedures and Principles Related to the Production Methods, Labeling and Surveillance of Tobacco Products Official Gazette, 2019; Edition 30701. Available from: https://www.tobaccocontrollaws.org/files/live/Turkey/Turkey%20-%202019%20Regs.pdf
63. Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. Regulation on Amendments to the Regulation on the Procedures and Principles Related to the Production Methods, Labeling and Surveillance of Tobacco Products Official Gazette, 2019; Edition 30814. Available from: https://www.tobaccocontrollaws.org/files/live/Turkey/Turkey%20-%20Reg%20Amd%27ing%202019%20Reg.pdf
64. Parliament of Israel. PROHIBITION OF ADVERTISING AND RESTRICTION OF MARKETING OF TOBACCO AND SMOKING PRODUCTS LAW, 5743-1983, 2019. Available from: https://www.tobaccocontrollaws.org/files/live/Israel/Israel%20-%20APS%20Law.pdf.
65. House of Commons Standing Committee on Health. Towards Zero Consumption: Generic Packaging of Tobacco Products, in Report of the House of Commons Standing Committee on Health1994.
66. Liberal Party. New plan for strong middle class. Available from: https://www.liberal.ca/files/2015/10/New-plan-for-a-strong-middle-class.pdf.
67. Prime Minister Justin Trudeau. Letter to Dr. Jane Philpott, Minister of Health (Minister of Health Mandate Letter), in November 132015. Available from: http://pm.gc.ca/eng/minister-health-mandate-letter.
68. Health Canada. Minister Philpott Launches Public Consultations on Tobacco Plain Packaging, in May 31, 2016 (news release)2016. Available from: https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/news/2016/05/minister-philpott-launches-public-consultations-on-tobacco-plain-packaging.html.
69. Health Canada. Consultation on “Plain and Standardized Packaging" for Tobacco Products, in Potential measures for regulating the appearance, shape and size of tobacco packages and of tobacco products. Document for consultation.” May 2016. (released May 31, 2016)2016. Available from: http://healthycanadians.gc.ca/health-system-systeme-sante/consultations/tobacco-packages-emballages-produits-tabac/document-eng.php.
70. Bill S-5. An Act to amend the Tobacco Act and the Non-smokers’ Health Act and to make consequential amendments to other Acts 2016; Available from: http://www.parl.ca/Content/Bills/421/Government/S-5/S-5_3/S-5_3.PDF.
71. Government of Canada. Tobacco Products Regulations (Plain and Standardized Appearance): SOR/2019-107. Canada Gazette, 2019; Volume 153(Number 9):1-472. Available from: http://www.gazette.gc.ca/rp-pr/p2/2019/2019-05-01/html/sor-dors107-eng.html;
72. The Dec. 29, 2015 Singapore Health Promotion Board announcement of the consultation can be seen here. Available from: https://www.hpb.gov.sg/article/public-consultation-on-potential-measures-to-enhance-singapore%27s-tobacco-control-policies.
73. The Singapore Government had previously announced that it would initiate a consultation by the end of 2015; see Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Health, statement in Singapore Parliament, March 12, 2015:.
74. Singapore. Consultation document and other related documents. 2018. Available from: www.moh.gov.sg/proposed-tobacco-control-measures
75. Ministry of Health Singapore. PRESS RELEASE - SINGAPORE TO INTRODUCE STANDARDISED PACKAGING AND ENLARGED GRAPHIC HEALTH WARNINGS FOR TOBACCO PRODUCTS, 2018.
76. Singapore Government. Tobacco (Control of Advertisements and Sale) (Appearance, Packaging and Labelling) Regulations 2019. Available from: https://sso.agc.gov.sg/SL-Supp/S480-2019/Published/20190701?DocDate=20190701.
77. Camara AM. Gambia to Embrace Plain Packaging of Tobacco Products, in Daily Observer, August 42016.
78. Hope A. Anonymous cigarette packets go on sale from January. Brussels Times, 2019. Available from: https://www.brusselstimes.com/all-news/belgium-all-news/health/56845/anonymous-cigarette-packets-go-on-sale-from-january/
79. FCTC Implementation Database. Belgium, fifth European country to adopt plain packaging. 2019. Last update: Viewed Available from: https://untobaccocontrol.org/impldb/belgium-fifth-european-country-to-have-adopted-plain-packaging/.
80. UN Tobacco Control. The Netherlands: Implementation of plain packaging from 01/10/2020. World Health Organization, 2020. Last update: Viewed Available from: https://untobaccocontrol.org/impldb/the-netherlands-implementation-of-plain-packaging-from-01-10-2020/.
81. Decree 239/2016 of 16 August 2016. Amendment to Government Decree 39/2013 of 14 February 2013 on the manufacture, placement on the market and control of tobacco products, combined warnings and the detailed rules for the application of the health-protection fine 2016.
82. in Hungary Gazette, August 162016. Available from: http://www.tobaccocontrollaws.org/files/live/Hungary/Hungary%20-%20Regulation%20239_2016.pdf.
83. Amendment to Government Decree 39/2013 of 14 February 2013 on the manufacture, placement on the market and control of tobacco products, combined warnings and the detailed rules for the application of the health-protection fine (the 'Implementation Decree')” (Draft). 2015; Available from: http://ec.europa.eu/growth/tools-databases/tris/en/index.cfm/search/?trisaction=search.detail&year=2015&num=529&mLang=EN.
84. Korm. rendelet a dohánytermékek előállításáról, forgalomba hozataláról és ellenőrzéséről, a kombinált figyelmeztetésekről, valamint az egészségvédelmi bírság alkalmazásának részletes szabályairól [Government Decree on the production, placing on the market and control of tobacco products, combined warnings and detailed rules for the application of health fines}, in 39/2013 (II. 14). Available from: https://net.jogtar.hu/jogszabaly?docid=A1300039.KOR.
85. Heunicke M. Act amending the Act on the Prohibition of Tobacco Advertising, etc., the Tobacco Products Act, etc., the Electronic Cigarettes Act, etc. and various other acts, Health DMo, Editor 2020. Available from: https://www.tobaccocontrollaws.org/files/live/Denmark/Denmark%20-%20Act%20No.%202071%20of%202020.pdf.
86. Kræftens Bekæmpelse. Ny handleplan er en sejr for børn og unges sundhed, in Ritzau 2021. Available from: https://via.ritzau.dk/pressemeddelelse/ny-handleplan-er-en-sejr-for-born-og-unges-sundhed?publisherId=2700313&releaseId=13606295.
87. Government of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar. ဆေးလိပ်နှင့် ဆေးရွက်ကြီးထွက်ပစ္စည်းများကို စံသတ်မှတ်ချက်များနှင့်အညီ ထုပ်ပိုးခြင်းနှင့် ကျန်းမာရေးသတိပေးရုပ်ပုံများ၊ စာသားများကို ပုံနှိပ်ဖော်ပြခြင်းဆိုင်ရာအမိန [Order on the packaging of cigarettes and tobacco products in accordance with the standards and the printing of health warning images and text], in Notification No. 453/20212021. Available from: https://www.mlis.gov.mm/lsScPop.do?lawordSn=16894.
88. Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids. Ministry of Health Order No. 453/2021, Order for Packaging of Tobacco Products and Printing of Health Warning Pictures and Text Statements According to the Standards, in Legislation by country: Myanmar2022. Available from: https://www.tobaccocontrollaws.org/legislation/country/myanmar/laws#law-8.
89. The Committee for Health & Social Care. The Tobacco Advertising and Related Activities (Guernsey) Regulations, 2021. Available from: https://www.guernseylegalresources.gg/CHttpHandler.ashx?documentid=82455.
90. Committee for Health & Social Care makes regulations to bring in plain packaging for tobacco products from 31 July 2021, in GOV.GG2021. Available from: https://www.gov.gg/plainpackagingfortobacco.
91. Restriction on Smoking (Standardised Packaging and Labelling) (Jersey) Regulations, in R&O.85/20212021. Available from: https://www.jerseylaw.je/laws/enacted/Pages/RO-085-2021.aspx.
92. Committee on Social Affairs and Health. Committee report StVM 2/2022 vp — HE 141/2021 vp Government proposal to Parliament to act amending the Tobacco Act, 2022. Available from: https://www.eduskunta.fi/FI/vaski/Mietinto/Sivut/StVM_2+2022.aspx.
93. Law No. 860-IIC Amending the Law on Advertising. approved by Parliament May 17 2017; Available from: http://www.tobaccocontrollaws.org/files/live/Georgia/Georgia%20-%202017%20APS%20Amendments%20-%20national.pdf.
94. Deowan Mohee. Introduction of plain packaging in Mauritius, Ms Kylie Lindorff, Editor 3 Nov 2018, Framework Convention Alliance.
95. Law no. 201 of 2016 regarding the conditions for manufacturing, presentation and selling of tobacco products and modifying the Law no. 349/2002 regarding prevention and counteracting the effects of tobacco consumption. Article 24. Bill PLx no. 272/2016; Available from: http://www.tobaccocontrollaws.org/files/live/Romania/Romania%20-%20Law%20No.%20201_2016.pdf.
96. Bill N° 162/SEC/15. July 9 2015.
97. The Minister of Health. Statement at the 16th World Conference on Tobacco or Health held in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, March 18, 2015. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4z9EHS_LehE.
98. No branding, logos or colours - SA gets tough on cigarettes, in City Press, May 312016. Available from: http://city-press.news24.com/News/no-branding-logos-or-colours-sa-gets-tough-on-cigarettes-20160531.
99. 5 big changes on the cards under South Africa’s new smoking laws in 2018, in BusinessTech, Nov. 132017. Available from: https://businesstech.co.za/news/business/210419/5-big-changes-on-the-cards-under-south-africas-new-smoking-laws-in-2018/.
100. Tobacco, alcohol and drug use: the good and the bad news. Medical Journal of Australia, 2014; 201(10):564. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25390247
101. Address by Sri Lanka President Maithripala Sirisena. Seventh Session of the Conference of the Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, in Delhi, India, Nov. 72016. Available from: http://www.who.int/fctc/cop/cop7/FCTC_COP_7_DIV6_EN.pdf?ua=1.
102. Press Trust of India. Sri Lanka to introduce plain packaging of tobacco products, in India Today, Nov. 72016. Available from: http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/sri-lanka-to-introduce-plain-packaging-of-tobacco-products/1/804453.html.
103. Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act Amendment Bill (draft). notified to World Trade Organization, Feb. 13, 2017, G/TBT/N/TPKM/264. See Article 6 of draft bill. 2017; Available from: http://ec.europa.eu/growth/tools-databases/tbt/en/search/?tbtaction=search.detail&Country_ID=TPKM&num=264&dspLang=en&basdatedeb=&basdatefin=&baspays=&basnotifnum=&basnotifnum2=&bastypepays=ANY&baskeywords=tobacco.
104. No author listed. Gambia to Embrace Plain Packaging of Tobacco Products, in African Tobacco Control Alliance2016. Available from: http://atca-africa.org/en/news-and-events/africa-news/114-article-africa-news/440-gambia-gambia-to-embrace-plain-packaging-of-tobacco-products.
105. Botswana Ministry of Health. World no tobacco day, in Botswana Ministry of Health2016. Available from: http://www.moh.gov.bw/news_events/world_no_tobacco.html.
106. Kairu P. New headache for tobacco companies as Health ministry seeks to enforce plain packaging for cigarettes, in Daily Nation2016. Available from: https://www.nation.co.ke/news/-/1056/3227228/-/pitjd4z/-/index.html.
107. Gagan Kumar Thapa NsMoH. Address to South Asia Tobacco Control Leadership Program, in (8 to 13 May 2017, Hotel Annapurna, Durbar Marg), May 8, 2017, Kathmandu, Nepal.2017.
108. South Asian tobacco control leadership meet concludes. Himalayan Times, 2017. Available from: https://thehimalayantimes.com/kathmandu/south-asian-tobacco-control-leadership-meet-concludes/
109. International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union). Nepal hosts regional tobacco control leadership programme, in May 312017. Available from: http://www.theunion.org/news-centre/news/nepal-hosts-regional-tobacco-control-leadership-programme.
110. The Jornal Da Republica. Diploma Ministerial No 2/2018. Available from: www.mj.gov.tl/jornal/public/docs/2018/serie_1/SERIE_I_NO_2.pdf.
111. Philip Morris Brands and Others. European Court of Justice, May 4, 2016, Case C-547-14.; Available from: http://curia.europa.eu/juris/document/document.jsf;jsessionid=9ea7d2dc30d5b4ac128357df4fc8b24389847d7897f5.e34KaxiLc3qMb40Rch0SaxuTa350?text=&docid=177724&pageIndex=0&doclang=en&mode=req&dir=&occ=first&part=1&cid=185180.
112. JTI-Ireland v Minister of Health and others.  IEHC 481, 2015 2530 P, July 7, 2015; Available from: http://www.courts.ie/Judgments.nsf/0/68C14CFFE270C72D80257E93005048D8.
113. Philip Morris and Others v. The Secretary of State for Health. High Court of England and Wales (Administrative Division),  EWHC 3669 (Admin), Case No: CO/2969/2014 and CO/2971/2014, Nov. 7, 2014.; Available from: https://www.tobaccocontrollaws.org/litigation/decisions/gb-20141107-r-on-the-application-of-philip.