7.10 Role of health professionals and social services

Last updated: August 2022

Suggested citation: Greenhalgh, EM., Stillman, S., & Ford, Section 7.10 Role of health professionals and social services. In Greenhalgh, EM, Scollo, MM and Winstanley, MH [editors]. Tobacco in Australia: Facts and issues. Melbourne: Cancer Council Victoria; 2022. Available from http://www.tobaccoinaustralia.org.au/chapter-7-cessation/7-10-role-of-general-practice-and-other-health-pro 


Smoking cessation not only reduces a person’s risk of many diseases and improves health in general, it can also increase the effectiveness of treatments, improve recovery from surgery and illness, and improve rates of survival.1 Experiencing health concerns can also be an important motivator for smokers to make a quit attempt. Cessation interventions should therefore form part of routine care for all types of healthcare professionals, and should be seen as a crucial part of prevention and treatment.2, 3

Interventions delivered by healthcare and social service providers can increase smoking cessation among service users. Even brief, simple advice about quitting increases patients’ rates of successful cessation,4-7 and given that smoking affects almost all parts of the body (see Chapter 3), healthcare and social service providers should integrate brief cessation interventions into routine care. A 2015 review of healthcare interventions concluded that brief advice from a healthcare worker is a globally affordable health-care intervention to promote and assist smoking cessation.6 Such advice should be provided to all people who smoke, regardless of their interest in quitting.8 Advice from physicians can also affect the attitudes, knowledge, intentions, and quitting behaviours of adolescents, thereby promoting both prevention and cessation.9

Reviews show a small, additional benefit of intensive advice and follow-up visits.4, 10 Interventions with more than one component, such as those that combine two or more of the elements of the 5As brief intervention framework (see below) increase quit rates in primary care settings.10 The delivery of smoking cessation intervention by more than one type of health professional has the potential to increase quitting and readiness to quit.11 Some doctors or other health professionals have the opportunity to provide intensive behavioural interventions for smokers or to refer them, if appropriate, to specialist services.(See Section 7.10.8.) Specialist services include telephone services, cessation specialists within practices or healthcare centres, group quit courses, and individual counsellors. Referral to specialist services can address some of the common barriers to intervention faced by other healthcare professionals, particularly time constraints. Quitline provides a readily accessible specialist service to which health professionals can refer their patients. (See Section 7.14.1.) Proactive referral (whereby the healthcare professional sends the person’s details to Quitline so that he or she is contacted by a Quitline staff person) leads to substantially higher rates of utilisation than the provision of simple advice to call.12-14  

In terms of the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of cessation interventions, the ‘number needed to treat’ (NNT, or the number of people who will successfully quit for every person who receives a cessation intervention) is relatively low.15 Table 7.10.1 compares the NNT to prevent one death among clinical interventions delivered in primary care, and shows that the impact of successful smoking cessation dwarfs that of other common clinical interventions.16

Table 7.10.1
Comparison of the number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent one death among clinical interventions delivered in primary care



Smoking cessation


Brief advice


Intensive behavioural support with:


Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT)




Statins as primary prevention


Antihypertension treatment for mild hypertension


Screening for cervical cancer




Papanicolaou smear


Pneumococcal vaccine


Note: *NNT to have one person quit smoking; †NNT to prevent one death
Sources: Critchley and Capewell;17 Van Schayck et al.;15 Pipe et al.16

Despite the majority of patients who smoke wanting to quit, health professionals often underutilise opportunities to provide cessation advice,10 , 18-21 and smoking cessation is neglected in many clinical guidelines.22 Factors positively associated with health professionals providing cessation intervention and counselling include believing that it is part of their role, confidence in providing counselling, knowledge of community cessation resources, and the patient-centeredness of the organisation.19, 23 Barriers cited by healthcare providers include lack of reimbursement, lack of training, and lack of resources for follow-up.10, 24, 25 Health professionals who are non-smokers are more likely to deliver cessation interventions than those who are smokers.26, 27

This section includes information on the role of: 

See Section for a discussion of the role of health professionals in providing cessation care to pregnant women, and Section 9A.3.6 for the role of mental health professionals in promoting quitting among people with mental illness.

7.10.1 General practitioners (GPs)

In 2020–21, more than 4 in 5 Australians (85%) had consulted a GP at least once in the previous year,28 which provides an excellent opportunity for promoting smoking cessation. GPs are perceived as credible and authoritative on health issues, and their advice as appropriate and acceptable.29, 30 A Cochrane review last updated in 2013 concluded that even when doctors merely provide brief, simple advice about quitting, this increases the likelihood a smoker will successfully quit and remain a non-smoker 12 months later.4

Time constraints mean that GPs spend only limited time with most smokers (i.e. a few minutes), therefore brief interventions are well-suited to form part of routine consultations. Guidelines on cessation published by the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners recommend using the three-step brief intervention model31 (sometimes known as the ABC model: ask, brief advice, cessation support):

  • Ask and record smoking status
  • Advise all people who smoke to quit and on the most effective methods
  • Help by offering to arrange referral, encourage use of behavioural intervention and use of evidence-based smoking cessation pharmacotherapy

More comprehensive support can be provided using the 5As approach:31

  • Ask: identifying all patients who smoke
  • Assess: assessing nicotine dependence and barriers to quitting
  • Advise: advising them to quit
  • Assist: offering quitting assistance
  • Arrange: arranging follow-up.

Receipt of brief interventions is associated with a significant increase in patients' use of counselling and cessation medication,32 and with smoking cessation.33 It is considered best practice in the US,34 UK,35 New Zealand,36 and by the World Health Organization.37

Despite the inclusion of the ABC and 5As in a number of national guidelines, they are not always implemented in practice,10, 38, 39 or are not implemented in full.40 Failure to implement brief interventions is associated with workload, perceived lack of remuneration, patients’ characteristics, and the smoking status of the GP.27,41, 42 A lack of training and confidence can also create feelings of illegitimacy among GPs—particularly early-career GPs43 —in relation to their ability to provide cessation interventions, though patients report that they are a legitimate and trusted source of cessation advice.44 Doctors who are smokers are less likely than non-smokers or ex-smokers to advise and counsel their patients to quit,41 but can be more likely to refer them to smoking cessation programs.45

Few patients visit their doctor with smoking addiction as their main complaint, and brief visits often focus on other problems.46 Many clinics do not have systems in place that routinely include brief cessation interventions, but there is some evidence that large healthcare settings can increase cessation interventions by building on an existing electronic health record platform.46 An Australian study found that the combined use of self-auditing, feedback, and education can improve GP management of smoking cessation.47 Suggested changes to clinical practice to improve tobacco treatment implementation in clinical settings include portraying proven treatments as best care, being prepared to deliver the appropriate treatment, including tobacco treatment in clinical team workflows, and taking advantage of every opportunity to deliver an intervention.48 The use of computer-based interventions alone or in combination with practitioner-delivered advice can assist the participation of general medical practices in tobacco control.49

The Quit Centre provides online training to GPs in best practice cessation care.50 Clinical practice guidelines for smoking cessation intervention also emphasise the utility, efficacy and reach of telephone quitlines.51 An Australian randomized controlled trial found that GPs referring smokers to Quitline increased smoking cessation compared with in-practice management.52 Proactive referral—whereby Quitline contacts the patient after receiving his or her details from the doctor—is more effective than simply advising patients to call.12-14   A 2021 Cochrane review concluded that cessation counselling (such as that provided by Quitline), free cessation medications, or tailored written materials may increase cessation rates when provided in addition to standard smoking cessation care in primary care practice.53 Patient-centred approaches may also improve the implementation of cessation interventions. Although patients who are highly engaged during medical encounters are more likely to respond to cessation advice, even smokers with low engagement are more likely to try and quit if they receive cessation counselling.54 Improving communication between patients and providers may promote greater engagement. One study that interviewed smokers about their cessation experiences found that many reported feeling shame, isolation, or disrespect, and frequently expressed wanting honest, consistent, and pro-active discussions and actions in their interactions with primary care providers.55 Australian researchers found that people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (of which smoking is the main cause) tended to delay seeking GP care due to anticipated stigma.56 A review of clinician messaging over time concluded that using gain-framed statements such as "Quitting smoking will benefit your health by preventing problems like lung and other cancers, heart disease, and stroke" is more effective than using loss-framed statements such as "Smoking will harm your health by causing problems like lung and other cancers, heart disease, and stroke."57 GP practice nurses

Practice nurses provide additional patient care and support within general practice settings in Australia; however, there is relatively little research on their role in promoting smoking cessation. A randomised controlled trial that was conducted in Sydney and Melbourne evaluated the uptake and effectiveness of tailored smoking cessation support, provided primarily by the practice nurse, and compared it to other forms of cessation support (Quitline referral and usual GP care). Results showed that patients who received more intensive practice nurse intervention were more likely to quit.58 An evaluation of the trial found that it was viewed positively by practice nurses, with most reporting being satisfied with the training and the materials provided.59 A survey in the UK found positive attitudes among nurses toward providing cessation interventions and highlighted the importance of training in increasing nurses’ enthusiasm about giving cessation advice and perceiving such advice to be effective.60

7.10.2 Hospital-based interventions

Smoking places a substantial burden on hospitals, and smoking cessation should be systematically embedded in the healthcare system; hospital admission is an ideal time for the delivery of cessation interventions.61 Despite a number of reviews, there is an absence of clear evidence regarding ideal methods within hospitals of screening, referral, intervention, and tailoring strategies for specific sub-groups.62, 63 In the absence of standardised systems, the implementation of routine evidence-based cessation interventions by healthcare services is unlikely.64 A recent review highlights that complex and multi-faceted implementation approaches capable of driving system changes are needed to effectively embed cessation care and change clinician behaviour.61 When such interventions are adopted by hospitals, they can lead to improved patient outcomes and decreased subsequent healthcare usage.65 , 66 Emergency department

The role of emergency department (ED) staff in cessation intervention holds significant potential to encourage quit attempts in smoking patients.67 However, ED doctors and nurses appear to frequently miss opportunities to offer smoking cessation interventions.68 A multicentre survey of ED providers in the US found that while asking and advising were relatively common, assessing, assisting, and arranging support for patients were low overall.69 ED staff in the US have expressed ambivalence toward the implementation of smoking cessation guidelines. Doctors and nurses agreed that implementing cessation interventions is important, but felt that it is not always practical due to time constraints, the competing demands of acute care, and resistance from patients. They also sought improved role clarity and teamwork when implementing the 5As in the ED.70 New Zealand research found that doctors and nurses in critical care settings held positive attitudes toward and had received training in providing smoking cessation advice, and perceived advising patients to stop smoking as their responsibility. However, patient acuity and level of sickness affected their ability to deliver smoking cessation advice.71

Despite the challenges, interventions in emergency healthcare settings are worthwhile. Tailored interventions in EDs can be effective in prompting initial quit attempts and ED patients are interested in quitting and in receiving support.67, 72-74 A 2014 systematic review concluded that ED visits in combination with ED-initiated tobacco cessation interventions are associated with higher cessation rates,75 and a 2017 systematic review and meta-analysis similarly concluded that ED-initiated cessation interventions are effective in promoting abstinence up to 12 months after intervention.76 Intensive intervention can also improve tobacco abstinence rates in low-income ED smokers.77 A study across two Melbourne hospitals found that although smoking was more prevalent than among the general population, more than one-third of ED patients reported wanting to quit, and almost two-thirds were willing to receive a brief intervention. Face-to-face individual or group counselling was preferred over telephone counselling or a session with a doctor.78 In-patient care

The prevalence of smoking is relatively high among people admitted to hospital, with an Australian and New Zealand study finding that one in five ICU patients was a current smoker.79 High intensity behavioural interventions that start during a hospital stay and include follow-up support for at least a month are effective, regardless of the reason for being admitted to hospital.80 Combining behavioural support with cessation pharmacotherapies is likely to further increase cessation rates among smokers admitted to hospital,81-83 though several studies have noted that NRT should not be routinely provided in the ICU setting.84-86

Despite increases over time in the provision of cessation interventions to hospitalised patients, they are still underutilised.87 It may be possible to increase hospital smoking cessation delivery, particularly the provision of NRT, by using a multi-strategic intervention including education of health professionals.88 , 89 Making such interventions a routine part of hospital care could dramatically increase the number of smokers offered smoking cessation support.90 In 2015, a framework for hospital-based intervention was proposed following the new NSW Health Smoke-free Health Care Policy, which stipulates that all clinical staff must provide routine brief interventions for all smoking patients. It suggests that: hospitalisation is a powerful teachable moment; all patients should be asked about smoking on admission, and smokers should be encouraged and assisted to quit permanently; the most effective interventions include a combination of counselling and NRT; and patients should be followed-up for at least 4 weeks after discharge.91

Nurses are the largest healthcare workforce and are involved in nearly all levels of hospital care. Guidelines for clinical care in some countries recommend that every nurse should consult their patients about smoking.92 Nurses can be effective in delivering tobacco cessation interventions, particularly when they receive cessation training and have positive attitudes and high self-efficacy for delivering cessation support,93 but some lack of appropriate knowledge and/or skill.94 Nurses who smoke are also less likely to deliver cessation interventions.93 A 2017 Cochrane review found moderate quality evidence that advice and support from nurses could increase people's success in quitting smoking, whether in hospitals or in community settings.95 A more recent review similarly supported the effectiveness of nurse counselling for smoking cessation when combined with NRT.96 Hospital pharmacists may also be well-placed to deliver cessation interventions to in-patients, though more evidence is needed regarding the most effective components and intensity of such interventions.97 Surgical care

Smoking causes a range of adverse surgical outcomes.98 (See Section 3.15.1) Although longer cessation is ideal,99 even short-term smoking cessation prior to surgery may help reduce the risk of postoperative complications.100-103 Patients who smoke should be encouraged to stop smoking at any time before surgery.99

Patients facing surgery are interested in quitting and believe their physicians have an important role in their cessation attempts.104, 105 Smokers may benefit from an intensive cessation program one month before surgery, and it may help long-term cessation.106-109 However, patients are not always well informed about the immediate benefits of quitting to their surgery outcomes.104 One study of anaesthesiologists and their patients found significant discrepancies between reports of provision of smoking cessation counselling; three quarters of anaesthesiologists stated that they frequently or almost always advised patients about the health risks of smoking, but patient surveys showed that less than one third received advice about the health risks of smoking, and less than one quarter received advice to quit before surgery.110 Research in the US found that, compared with non-surgical residents, surgical residents were less likely to perform cessation counselling and more likely to think that counselling was not part of their job. Both groups frequently missed opportunities to help patients quit. Surgical residents were also more likely to cite a lack of time and formal training as barriers to implementing interventions.111

Barriers to cessation intervention in surgical care include perceived lack of time for training and intervention and lack of knowledge about referral options, such as quitline services.104 Clinicians also report lack of organisational support, perceived patient objection, lack of systems to identify smokers, perceived inability to change care practices, perceived lack of efficacy of interventions, and the cost of providing care as barriers.112 Patients may not have enough pre-operative contact with the hospital to maximise smoking cessation intervention.113 Australian research has found similar barriers, but also notes facilitators of cessation care including optimism and empathy among individual clinicians, as well as strong teamwork.114

A number of studies have examined ways to increase the effectiveness of cessation interventions prior to surgery. A 2017 systematic review examined the components of effective cessation interventions for surgical patients. It found that overall, interventions almost doubled the proportion of smokers who were abstinent or reduced smoking by surgery relative compared with control (46.2% vs. 24.5%). Components of more effective interventions included a greater number of sessions, face-to-face delivery by nurses, and certain behaviour change techniques.115 Australian researchers found that even a simple preoperative intervention was effective in promoting smoking reduction or cessation up to one year post-surgery.116 One review notes that many studies looking at the effects of preoperative cessation have recruited smokers very close to their scheduled surgery, therefore the benefits of preoperative smoking cessation may have not been fully apparent.117 Outpatient care

Outpatient settings offer important opportunities to provide cessation intervention and relapse prevention to smokers, but are underutilised. Data from the US show that from 2005 through 2010, more than one-third of hospital outpatient visits had no screening for tobacco use, and among current tobacco users, only one in four received any cessation assistance.118 This is despite the fact that referral to evidence-based tobacco treatment after hospital visits is effective.119  Smoking cessation interventions by nurses are beneficial for non-hospitalised patients,120 and cessation programs combined with routine rehabilitation and care for outpatients are also effective in promoting abstinence.121, 122

7.10.3 Pharmacists

Community pharmacies may be an underused resource for helping to deliver public health services.123 Pharmacies supply cessation products to a large number of people trying to quit smoking, which creates opportunities for providing sound advice and support. Pharmacies have potential as health promotion agencies as they are the most accessible healthcare services in the community and are visited by both healthy and sick people.124 The Pharmaceutical Society of Australia’s guidelines for smoking cessation125 recommend that pharmacists:

  • provide brief advice (Ask, Advise, Help) and ongoing smoking cessation support
  • provide advice about prescription and non-prescription pharmacotherapy options
  • provide prescription and non-prescription pharmacotherapy and counselling on appropriate use
  • identify and resolve pharmacotherapy-related problems (e.g. interactions with medicines, adverse effects) during follow up.

A number of studies and reviews suggest that trained community pharmacists can deliver smoking cessation interventions that are effective in helping smokers to quit.126-130 123 ,131-133 A 2019 Cochrane review found low-quality evidence that community pharmacists can provide effective behavioural support to people trying to quit. Findings suggested that more intensive interventions beginning prior to the quit day and comprising weekly appointments increased effectiveness.134

Smokers report perceiving pharmacist-assisted cessation to be an appealing approach to quitting smoking.135 Australian research that explored the knowledge and practices of community pharmacists found that while their cessation counselling was satisfactory, further education is needed to improve practice standards in terms of matching a patient's history and smoking status to an appropriate product.136

While specialist-led group services appear to have higher quit rates than one-to-one services provided by pharmacies, pharmacy services treat many more smokers and both are cost-effective.137,138 An economic analysis of providing cessation counselling training to physicians and pharmacists found that synergistic educational training for both groups could be a cost-effective method for smoking cessation in the community.139

Pharmacists report a number of common barriers to providing cessation intervention, including fear of negative reaction from customers, their perception of a customer’s unwillingness to discuss smoking, the short length of the relationship with the customer, perceived lack of demand, and lack of confidence by the pharmacist.140,141 Education and routine training for all pharmacy personnel may increase the implementation and success rates of pharmacy-led smoking cessation services.132,142,143

7.10.4 Dentists

Smoking is a significant contributor to oral disease and cancer, and cessation is an important part of the treatment of periodontal diseases144 and improvements in periodontal health.145 A review of international evidence concluded that behavioural intervention for smoking cessation involving oral health professionals is effective in reducing tobacco use in smokers and users of smokeless tobacco and preventing uptake in non-smokers.146 A 2021 Cochrane review found very low‐certainty evidence that behavioural interventions delivered by dental professionals can increase quit rates. The evidence was stronger when behavioural interventions were combined with NRT.147 Dental patients have reported being receptive to dental practitioners inquiring about smoking behaviour and offering advice on quitting.148 ,149

In Australia, dentists provide care to many high-risk populations, therefore effective training in and the implementation of cessation interventions is essential.150 Tobacco use prevention and cessation guidelines have been developed for dental settings. They involve a level-of-care model based on the 5As,151 with brief intervention, motivational interviewing, and more intensive plans involving pharmacotherapy.152-154 Brief behavioural interventions complemented by pharmacological treatment—with the participation of the entire dental team—are effective cessation interventions within dentistry.147,155 Behavioural interventions that increase motivation and teach regulatory skills (such as coping strategies to avoid relapse) appear to be the most effective within dental settings.156 However, implementation of cessation interventions is poor.153, 157,158 The most frequently delivered components of the 5As are ‘asking’, ‘advising’ and ‘assessing’, with ‘assisting’ and ‘arranging’ being less common.154 A large survey of dentists in the US found that almost all reported that they routinely ask patients about tobacco use, about three-quarters provide cessation counselling, and just under half routinely offer cessation assistance (such as referring on or writing a prescription).159

Barriers to providing cessation interventions in dental settings include lack of time, financial considerations, concern about a patient’s interest and resistance, fear of losing patients, too little training, perceived lack of relevance and experience, lack of knowledge about where to refer the patient for further support, and forgetting.144,150,160-164 Dental professionals who smoke are also less likely to provide cessation interventions.165 Willingness to intervene is related to periodontal treatment and the presence of smoking-related disease.161 Some research does reveal a lack of adequate knowledge among dental school faculty, staff and students on the negative health effects associated with smoking and a lack of confidence in addressing smoking behaviour.166,167 Further research is needed to better understand and influence the factors that hinder guideline implementation.153,157,168-170

Dental hygienists see their patients regularly, which provides opportunities for cessation assistance.144 However, recommended smoking cessation interventions are not always implemented, with hygienists reporting lack of comfort and confidence in addressing smoking with their patients.171, 172 A survey of Australian oral health practitioners found that while the majority of practitioners frequently screened for smoking behaviour, only about half assisted patients to quit smoking. They reported that lack of knowledge of pharmacological treatments and lack of access to smoking cessation resources are common barriers to providing cessation assistance.173 Intervention within paediatric dental practices could help prevent initiation and increase cessation among young people, however several studies have highlighted low adherence by healthcare providers to recommended screening and prevention interventions for children and adolescents.118,174

Measures to promote the involvement of dental professionals in smoking prevention and cessation include increased education on the effects of smoking on oral health, brief intervention training, structured advice protocols, and encouraging greater involvement by dentists, dental nurses and hygienists with patients without acute oral complaints.161 , 175 Dentists are willing to receive training on smoking cessation interventions, and including training in academic dental programs increases the use of smoking cessation practices within the dental team.160 Dental students generally agree that tobacco cessation counselling is within the responsibility of the dental profession, is within the scope of dental practice, and can be effective.164 ,176

7.10.5 Specialists

Specialists have the potential to play an important role in promoting smoking cessation. For example, paediatricians have the opportunity to deliver cessation interventions to parents that can reduce children’s exposure to secondhand smoke and reduce the risk of a range of acute and chronic childhood conditions. However, screening is often inconsistent and there is a need for standardised processes to document secondhand smoke exposure.177 A systematic review found that physician-delivered training in a brief intervention using CEASE principles (Ask, Assist, Refer) may increase smoking cessation counselling, and training in a CEASE course delivered online or a short intervention using the 5As may increase screening in the paediatric setting.5 A meta-analysis of cessation interventions tailored to parents concluded that they are modestly effective, with parents in the intervention conditions about 1.6 times more likely to quit than parents in the control conditions. The authors note that further research is needed on how such interventions can be improved.178

There are enormous health benefits of smoking cessation for patients with cardiovascular disease. Australian guidelines recommend that advice on smoking, nutrition, alcohol, physical activity and body weight should be part of routine management of hypertension for all patients, regardless of drug therapy. Smoking cessation is recommended to reduce overall cardiovascular risk,179 and US data suggest that smoking cessation is more cost-effective than other preventive cardiology measures.180 However, cardiac health professionals, including lipidologists and cardiologists, could implement more effective smoking cessation interventions.181,182 Surveys assessing the knowledge, interest and attitudes of cardiologists regarding smoking cessation highlight a lack of commitment.183 Cardiologists do not always consider themselves the most appropriate person for intervention, but many do not refer smoking patients to cessation specialists or teams for assistance, either.183 Reasons for cessation being overlooked may include that the advent of effective high-tech interventions for cardiovascular diseases has drawn attention away from secondary prevention. Some professionals cite a lack of time or lack of training in smoking cessation counselling.180 Cardiac rehabilitation health professionals report finding it difficult to work with smokers, partly because some patients deny the dangers of smoking or are reluctant to discuss their smoking because of the stigma attached to smoking after a cardiac event. Such professionals also report feelings of frustration, failure, and lack of confidence in managing this health issue.184 Nonetheless, interventions are effective at promoting short- and long-term cessation among cardiopulmonary patients.185

Oncology professionals also have a crucial role to play in promoting cessation among people with cancer; smoking not only causes cancer, but also reduces the effectiveness of treatment and increases the risk of recurrence and death.1 Cessation improves cancer patients’ prognosis (see Section 3.15.4). However, a lack of knowledge, skills or confidence can impede the provision of cessation interventions. Oncology professionals can worry that addressing cessation will create feelings of worry or guilt and harm their relationship with patients, particularly if the cancer is smoking-related. Training in communication skills and the delivery of interventions in an empathic and non-judgemental manner can help overcome these concerns.186 Australian research found that while more than nine in ten medical oncologists and radiation oncologists asked about and documented tobacco use, most felt that cessation should be managed by other professionals, highlighting the importance of collaboration and referral pathways.187 Another Australian study found that only about half of a sample of multidisciplinary cancer care clinicians provided brief cessation interventions, with the authors emphasising the need for clinician training and systems-level changes that embed cessation as part of cancer care.188

Other relevant settings (i.e., specialties that see patients directly affected by or at risk for tobacco-related diseases) where there may be a need and potential for brief cessation interventions to be more fully integrated in routine practice include urological practice,189,190 gastroenterology practice,191 rheumatological practice,192 gynaecological practice,193 perioperative care (such as by anaesthetists),194,195 periodontal practice,196 plastic and reconstructive surgery197 and paediatric medical practices.198,199 Many of the findings stress the need for further research to highlight and address clinical barriers to providing cessation interventions and training to enhance specialists’ knowledge, skills, and confidence. See Section 7.12 for a discussion of cessation interventions for people with serious health conditions.  

7.10.6 Allied health professionals

There is limited research exploring the effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions in other health professional practices, although some studies have highlighted interest in, and opportunities for increased and improved involvement by many healthcare providers. One small study within podiatrist consultations, for example, showed that providing routine advice to smokers could be significantly increased within existing budgets and without prolonging consultations.200

Smoking cessation interventions delivered by optometrists are important, given the relationship between smoking and eye diseases. Evidence suggests that optometrists provide limited cessation support for patients, with barriers to more active involvement being similar to other health professions.201 , 202 An Australian survey of optometrists found that fewer than half reported routinely asking their patients about smoking status, with younger practitioners least likely to enquire about patients' smoking behaviours.203 However, Australians who visit the optometrist report being receptive to discussions about tobacco use.204

Cessation as a goal in physiotherapy practices is consistent with the profession’s aims to promote health and wellness,205 and smoking cessation advice can be readily integrated into physical therapy practice.205 One study found that lack of resources and time are the main barriers to providing such advice, and suggested that physiotherapists’ preparedness and confidence in providing smoking cessation assistance need to be increased.206 Australian researchers suggest that a three-step brief intervention model—Ask, Advise and Help—can overcome these barriers in physiotherapy practice.207

Quitting smoking is associated with improvements in mental health among people with psychiatric disorders.208 Mental health professionals therefore play an important part in supporting smoking cessation. Integrating evidence-treatment for tobacco use disorder into other ongoing treatments represents an important opportunity for increasing cessation, particularly among people with serious mental illness and/or substance use disorders (see Section 9A.3).209 Similarly, social workers often work with disadvantaged and vulnerable groups that have much higher smoking prevalence, who may particularly benefit from the inclusion of cessation assistance into usual care.210

7.10.7 Social and community service organisations

Social and community service organisations are non-government, not-for-profit organisations that provide welfare services, such as accommodation assistance, emergency relief, and financial and relationship counselling, to people who are socially disadvantaged. Given the much higher prevalence of smoking among people who are socially disadvantaged (see Section 1.7), and the contribution of tobacco use to health disparities (see Chapter 9), social and community service organisations are increasingly recognising their role as important settings for implementing cessation interventions.211-213 Such interventions are also cost-effective.214 An Australian trial that examined the effectiveness of behavioural counselling with the option of NRT delivered to highly disadvantaged smokers through a community social service by trained case-workers found that while it did not increase abstinence rates, it increased quit attempts and reduced consumption.215 The complex needs of highly disadvantaged smokers may necessitate tailored and targeted interventions—see InDepth 9A. Staff training and organisational policies that require routine cessation support can help ensure that cessation care is provided to all clients of community service organisations.216

7.10.8 Practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine

While complementary and alternative medicine practitioners treat significant numbers of tobacco users, they are often not trained in evidence-based strategies. One study developed and evaluated a brief intervention adapted for such practitioners, and found that after three months, there were significant increases in practitioners' tobacco cessation activities, motivation, and confidence in helping patients quit, and comfort with providing information and referrals for guideline-based tobacco cessation aids. This may be an additional channel for reaching smokers.220 (See Section 7.18 for information on the use of alternative therapies for smoking cessation)

7.10.9 Training health professionals in smoking cessation interventions

Training clinicians in smoking cessation methods may increase patients’ cessation rates,10, 221 as such training increases the number of people identified as smokers and advised to quit.222-225 Training increases health professionals’ knowledge, skills, confidence, and likelihood of practicing smoking-related interventions.127, 223, 224 , 226-232 Such training should include practical guidance, resources and communication skills training for delivering cessation interventions, as well as education on the immediate clinical benefits of quitting.233 Brief cessation training and technical assistance also increases referral by health providers to specialist smoking cessation services.234, 235 Medical students generally retain skills learned during their training and in turn become more active in cessation interventions.236-239 However there is a lack of consistency in cessation training during health professionals’ education.240 Part of the reason that some doctors may not be more actively involved in tobacco use treatment may be due to a lack of relevant training during medical school.241-243 Despite some international evidence of an increase in cessation training in medical schools over time, increased emphasis on addressing tobacco use with patients is needed.241, 244

Most postgraduate health professional training programs incorporate the 5As approach, stage of change, motivational interviewing, and pharmacotherapies, and commonly refer to clinical practice guidelines.245 Although such training is generally delivered face-to-face, there are an increasing number of training programs available online.245 However, one review and evaluation of online tobacco dependence treatment courses found that while many excelled in providing effective navigation, course rationale, and content, most failed to meet minimal quality standards and none of the courses evaluated could be ranked as superior.246 Further, not all practising health professionals access cessation intervention training: they report lack of interest, time pressures, and competing priorities as major barriers. Overall, smoking cessation education programs for health professionals remain fairly ‘ad hoc’ and there is a lack of a systematic organised approach to ensure availability and consistency in most countries.245

The systematic, comprehensive and tailored program developed by Quit Victoria provides cessation training for a range of health professionals. The program includes face-to-face training and e-learning modules that are accessed by health professionals both in Australia and internationally.50 Cessation training should not only be included during training, but should form a core part of ongoing professional development.186

7.10.10 Increasing intervention delivery and referrals

Healthcare providers and policy makers should develop and implement supportive systems, policies and training that embed the provision of cessation interventions as part of routine care.2 Along with training health professionals in smoking cessation interventions, organisational systems for routinely recording client smoking behaviour increase the effectiveness of practice,10, 46, 247-249 as it increases intervention delivery resulting in increased cessation rates.10, 250 The growing use of electronic medical records has the potential to remind doctors and other clinic staff to record tobacco use, to give brief advice to quit, to prescribe medications, and to refer to cessation counselling services. A 2014 Cochrane review concluded that electronic records appear to increase the documentation of tobacco status and referral to cessation counselling,251 and subsequent studies have also supported the role of electronic health records in increasing the provision of cessation interventions.186, 252

An integrated, comprehensive systems approach to cessation treatment and policy may help improve the provision of cessation care, and increase quit rates.253 Australia currently has no national strategy for tobacco dependence treatment, and many opportunities to provide cessation advice and treatment are missed.254 Such a strategy could include:2 , 253-257

  • expanding cessation treatment coverage and provider reimbursement
  • mandating adequate funding for the use and promotion of evidence-based, state-sponsored quitlines
  • supporting healthcare system changes to embed tobacco treatment as part of routine care
  • increasing smokers’ knowledge of the availability and effectiveness of evidence-based cessation support
  • tailoring and targeting cessation support to best meet the needs of priority and disadvantaged populations (see InDepth 9A).

A number of studies have examined how to increase health professionals’ referrals to Quitline—see Section 7.14.5 for a detailed discussion.

Relevant news and research

For recent news items and research on this topic, click  here. ( Last updated March 2024)


1. US Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Smoking: 50 Years of Progress. A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2014. Available from: http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/reports/50-years-of-progress/full-report.pdf

2. Plever S and Gartner CE. Smoking cessation assistance should be free, accessible, and part of routine care. Medical Journal of Australia, 2022; 216(7):345–6. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/35318657

3. Buchanan T, White SL, Marshall H, Carson-Chahhoud KV, Magee CA, et al. Time to rethink tobacco dependence treatment in Australia. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 2021; 45(6):538–40. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/34529331

4. Stead LF, Buitrago D, Preciado N, Sanchez G, Hartmann-Boyce J, et al. Physician advice for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013  DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000165.pub4. Available from: https://www.cochranelibrary.com/cdsr/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD000165.pub4/full

5. Hall K, Kisely S, and Urrego F. The Use of Pediatrician Interventions to Increase Smoking Cessation Counseling Among Smoking Caregivers: A Systematic Review. Clinical Pediatrics, 2016; 55(7):583–92. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26928569

6. West R, Raw M, McNeill A, Stead L, Aveyard P, et al. Health-care interventions to promote and assist tobacco cessation: a review of efficacy, effectiveness and affordability for use in national guideline development. Addiction, 2015; 110(9):1388–403. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26031929

7. Wray JM, Funderburk JS, Acker JD, Wray LO, and Maisto SA. A Meta-Analysis of Brief Tobacco Interventions for Use in Integrated Primary Care. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 2018; 20(12):1418–26. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29059419

8. McCormack J, Walker N, McRobbie H, Wright K, Nosa V, et al. Revised Guidelines for smoking cessation in New Zealand, 2021. New Zealand Medical Journal, 2022; 135(1558):54–64. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/35834834

9. Hum AM, Robinson LA, Jackson AA, and Ali KS. Physician communication regarding smoking and adolescent tobacco use. Pediatrics, 2011; 127(6):e1368–74. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21576307

10. Fiore MC and Jaén CR. A clinical blueprint to accelerate the elimination of tobacco use. Journal of the American Medical Association, 2008; 299(17):2083–5. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18460668/

11. An LC, Foldes SS, Alesci NL, Bluhm JH, Bland PC, et al. The impact of smoking-cessation intervention by multiple health professionals. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2008; 34(1):54–60. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18083451

12. Wolfenden L, Wiggers J, Campbell E, Knight J, Kerridge R, et al. Feasibility, acceptability, and cost of referring surgical patients for postdischarge cessation support from a quitline. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 2008; 10(6):1105–8. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18584474

13. Drehmer JE, Hipple B, Nabi-Burza E, Ossip DJ, Chang Y, et al. Proactive enrollment of parents to tobacco quitlines in pediatric practices is associated with greater quitline use: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health, 2016; 16(1):520. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27342141

14. Skov-Ettrup LS, Dalum P, Bech M, and Tolstrup JS. The effectiveness of telephone counselling and internet- and text-message-based support for smoking cessation: results from a randomized controlled trial. Addiction, 2016; 111(7):1257–66. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26748541

15. Van Schayck OCP, Williams S, Barchilon V, Baxter N, Jawad M, et al. Treating tobacco dependence: guidance for primary care on life-saving interventions. Position statement of the IPCRG. NPJ Prim Care Respir Med, 2017; 27(1):38. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28600490

16. Pipe AL, Evans W, and Papadakis S. Smoking cessation: health system challenges and opportunities. Tobacco Control, 2022; 31(2):340–7. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/35241609

17. Critchley JA and Capewell S. Mortality risk reduction associated with smoking cessation in patients with coronary heart disease: a systematic review. JAMA, 2003; 290(1):86–97. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12837716

18. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Smoking-cessation advice from health-care providers--Canada, 2005. MMWR: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 2007; 56(28):708–12. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5628a3.htm

19. McMenamin SB, Bellows NM, Halpin HA, Rittenhouse DR, Casalino LP, et al. Adoption of policies to treat tobacco dependence in U.S. medical groups. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2010; 39(5):449–56. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20965382

20. Pbert L, Zapka J, Jolicoeur DG, White MJ, Valentine Goins K, et al. Implementing state tobacco treatment services: lessons from the Massachusetts experience. Health Promotion Practice, 2011; 12(6):802–10. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21571986

21. McCrabb S, Baker AL, Attia J, Balogh ZJ, Lott N, et al. Smoking, Quitting, and the Provision of Smoking Cessation Support: A Survey of Orthopaedic Trauma Patients. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma, 2017; 31(8):e255–e62. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28459775

22. Ekezie W, Murray RL, Agrawal S, Bogdanovica I, Britton J, et al. Quality of smoking cessation advice in guidelines of tobacco-related diseases: An updated systematic review. Clin Med (Lond), 2020; 20(6):551–9. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33199319

23. Tremblay M, Cournoyer D, and O'Loughlin J. Do the correlates of smoking cessation counseling differ across health professional groups? Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 2009; 11(11):1330–8. Available from: http://ntr.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/11/11/1330

24. Fagan KA. Smoking-cessation counseling practices of college/university health-care providers--a theory-based approach. Journal of American College Health, 2007; 55(6):351–9. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17517547

25. Edwards R, Wilson N, and Thomson G. Tobacco control in New Zealand: top marks for new smoking cessation guidelines, must try harder elsewhere. New Zealand Medical Journal, 2008; 121(1276):5–8. Available from: https://www.proquest.com/docview/1034241977

26. Ulbricht S, Baumeister S, Meyer C, Schmidt C, Schumann A, et al. Does the smoking status of general practitioners affect the efficacy of smoking cessation counselling? Patient Education and Counseling, 2009; 74(1):23–8. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18818045/

27. Azuri J, Peled S, Kitai E, and Vinker S. Smoking prevention and primary physician's and patient's characteristics. American Journal of Health Behavior, 2009; 33(6):710–7. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19320619

28. Australian Institute for Health and Welfare. General practice, allied health and other primary care services.  2022. Available from: https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/health-care-quality-performance/general-practice-allied-health-and-other-primary-c

29. Richmond RL, Makinson RJ, Kehoe LA, Giugni AA, and Webster IW. One-year evaluation of three smoking cessation interventions administered by general practitioners. Addictive Behaviors, 1993; 18(2):187–99. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8506790

30. Richmond R. Physicians can make a difference with smokers: evidence-based clinical approaches. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 1999; 3(2):100–12. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10091874/

31. The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners. Supporting smoking cessation: A guide for health professionals. East Melbourne, Vic: RACGP, 2019. Available from: https://www.racgp.org.au/clinical-resources/clinical-guidelines/key-racgp-guidelines/view-all-racgp-guidelines/supporting-smoking-cessation/pharmacotherapy-for-smoking-cessation.

32. Kruger J, O'Halloran A, Rosenthal AC, Babb SD, and Fiore MC. Receipt of evidence-based brief cessation interventions by health professionals and use of cessation assisted treatments among current adult cigarette-only smokers: National Adult Tobacco Survey, 2009-2010. BMC Public Health, 2016; 16(1):141. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26868930

33. Odorico M, Le Goff D, Aerts N, Bastiaens H, and Le Reste JY. How To Support Smoking Cessation In Primary Care And The Community: A Systematic Review Of Interventions For The Prevention Of Cardiovascular Diseases. Vasc Health Risk Manag, 2019; 15:485–502. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31802882

34. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Clinical Cessation Tools.  2021. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/patient-care/clinical-tools/index.html

35. Excellence NIfHaC. Tobacco: preventing uptake, promoting quitting and treating dependence. NICE guideline, NG209. NICE, 2021. Available from: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng209

36. Ministry of Health. The New Zealand Guidelines for Helping People to Stop Smoking: 2021 Update. Wellington: Ministry of Health, 2021. Available from: https://www.health.govt.nz/system/files/documents/publications/the-new-zealand-guidelines-for-helping-people-to-stop-smoking-2021.pdf

37. World Health Organization. Toolkit for delivering the 5A’s and 5R’s brief tobacco interventions in primary care. Geneva, Switzerland 2014. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/112835/9789241506953_eng.pdf

38. Lawson PJ, Flocke SA, and Casucci B. Development of an instrument to document the 5A's for smoking cessation. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2009; 37(3):248–54. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19666161

39. Bryant J, Carey M, Sanson-Fisher R, Mansfield E, Regan T, et al. Missed opportunities: general practitioner identification of their patients' smoking status. BMC Fam Pract, 2015; 16(1):8. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25649312

40. Bartsch AL, Harter M, Niedrich J, Brutt AL, and Buchholz A. A Systematic Literature Review of Self-Reported Smoking Cessation Counseling by Primary Care Physicians. PLoS ONE, 2016; 11(12):e0168482. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28002498

41. Meshefedjian GA, Gervais A, Tremblay M, Villeneuve D, and O’Loughlin J. Physician smoking status may influence cessation counseling practices. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 2010; 101(4). Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21033533/

42. Ulbricht S, Klein G, Haug S, Gross B, Rumpf HJ, et al. Smokers' expectations toward the engagement of their general practitioner in discussing lifestyle behaviors. Journal of Health Communication, 2011; 16(2):135–47. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21128151

43. Wilson HHK, Norris R, Tapley A, Magin P, and Klein L. Role legitimacy, comfort and confidence providing tobacco, alcohol and other drug care: a cross-sectional study of Australian early-career general practitioners. Educ Prim Care, 2021; 32(1):19–26. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33090920

44. Manolios E, Sibeoni J, Teixeira M, Revah-Levy A, Verneuil L, et al. When primary care providers and smokers meet: a systematic review and metasynthesis. NPJ Prim Care Respir Med, 2021; 31(1):31. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/34075057

45. Duaso MJ, McDermott MS, Mujika A, Purssell E, and While A. Do doctors' smoking habits influence their smoking cessation practices? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Addiction, 2014; 109(11):1811–23. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25041084

46. Lindholm C, Adsit R, Bain P, Reber PM, Brein T, et al. A demonstration project for using the electronic health record to identify and treat tobacco users. WMJ, 2010; 109(6):335–40. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21287886

47. McKay-Brown L, Bishop N, Balmford J, Borland R, Kirby C, et al. The impact of a GP clinical audit on the provision of smoking cessation advice. Asia Pac Fam Med, 2008; 7(1):4. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18973708

48. Woods SS and Jaen CR. Increasing consumer demand for tobacco treatments: Ten design recommendations for clinicians and healthcare systems. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2010; 38(3 Suppl):S385–92. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20176312

49. Meyer C, Ulbricht S, Gross B, Kastel L, Wittrien S, et al. Adoption, reach and effectiveness of computer-based, practitioner delivered and combined smoking interventions in general medical practices: a three-arm cluster randomized trial. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2012; 121(1-2):124–32. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21924563

50. Quit Centre. Providing health professionals the latest information on smoking cessation.  2022. Available from: https://www.quitcentre.org.au/.

51. Willett JG, Hood NE, Burns EK, Swetlick JL, Wilson SM, et al. Clinical faxed referrals to a tobacco quitline: reach, enrollment, and participant characteristics. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2009; 36(4):337–40. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19201150

52. Borland R, Balmford J, Bishop N, Segan C, Piterman L, et al. In-practice management versus quitline referral for enhancing smoking cessation in general practice: a cluster randomized trial. Family Practice, 2008; 25(5):382–9. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18689856

53. Lindson N, Pritchard G, Hong B, Fanshawe TR, Pipe A, et al. Strategies to improve smoking cessation rates in primary care. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2021; 9:CD011556. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/34693994

54. Cunningham P. Patient engagement during medical visits and smoking cessation counseling. JAMA Intern Med, 2014; 174(8):1291–8. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24911033

55. Halladay JR, Vu M, Ripley-Moffitt C, Gupta SK, O'Meara C, et al. Patient perspectives on tobacco use treatment in primary care. Preventing Chronic Disease, 2015; 12:E14. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25654219

56. Madawala S, Enticott J, Sturgiss E, Selamoglu M, and Barton C. The impact of smoking status on anticipated stigma and experience of care among smokers and ex-smokers with chronic illness in general practice. Chronic Illness, 2022:17423953221101337. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/35575240

57. Toll BA, Rojewski AM, Duncan LR, Latimer-Cheung AE, Fucito LM, et al. "Quitting smoking will benefit your health": the evolution of clinician messaging to encourage tobacco cessation. Clinical Cancer Research, 2014; 20(2):301–9. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24436474

58. Zwar NA, Richmond RL, Halcomb EJ, Furler JS, Smith JP, et al. Quit in general practice: a cluster randomized trial of enhanced in-practice support for smoking cessation. Family Practice, 2015; 32(2):173–80. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25670206

59. Halcomb EJ, Furler JS, Hermiz OS, Blackberry ID, Smith JP, et al. Process evaluation of a practice nurse-led smoking cessation trial in Australian general practice: views of general practitioners and practice nurses. Family Practice, 2015; 32(4):468–73. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26024924

60. Hall S, Vogt F, and Marteau TM. A short report: survey of practice nurses' attitudes towards giving smoking cessation advice. Family Practice, 2005; 22(6):614–6. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16055470

61. Ugalde A, White V, Rankin NM, Paul C, Segan C, et al. How can hospitals change practice to better implement smoking cessation interventions? A systematic review. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 2022; 72(3):266–86. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/34797562

62. Wolfenden L, Campbell E, Wiggers J, Walsh R, and Bailey L. Helping hospital patients quit: what the evidence supports and what guidelines recommend. Preventive Medicine, 2008; 46(4):346–57. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18207229/

63. Cunningham RM, Bernstein SL, Walton M, Broderick K, Vaca FE, et al. Alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs: future directions for screening and intervention in the emergency department. Academic Emergency Medicine, 2009; 16(11):1078–88. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20053226

64. Freund M, Campbell E, Paul C, McElduff P, Walsh RA, et al. Smoking care provision in hospitals: a review of prevalence. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 2008; 10(5):757–74. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18569750

65. Mullen KA, Manuel DG, Hawken SJ, Pipe AL, Coyle D, et al. Effectiveness of a hospital-initiated smoking cessation programme: 2-year health and healthcare outcomes. Tobacco Control, 2017; 26(3):293–9. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27225016

66. Vitangcol KJ, Puljevic C, Gupta D, and Snoswell CL. Smoking status on subsequent readmission to hospital: The impact of inpatient brief interventions for smokers. Tob Prev Cessat, 2021; 7:72. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/34966879

67. Daube M and Jelinek GA. Smoking out tobacco: a vital preventive role for emergency departments. Emergency Medicine Australasia, 2010; 22(4):260–2. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20796005

68. Buchbinder M, Wilbur R, Zuskov D, McLean S, and Sleath B. Teachable moments and missed opportunities for smoking cessation counseling in a hospital emergency department: a mixed-methods study of patient-provider communication. BMC Health Services Research, 2014; 14(1):651. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25526749

69. Walters EL, Reibling ET, Wilber ST, Sullivan AF, Gaeta TJ, et al. Emergency department provider preferences related to clinical practice guidelines for tobacco cessation: a multicenter survey. Academic Emergency Medicine, 2014; 21(7):785–93. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25112653

70. Katz DA, Paez MW, Reisinger HS, Gillette MT, Weg MW, et al. Implementation of smoking cessation guidelines in the emergency department: a qualitative study of staff perceptions. Addict Sci Clin Pract, 2014; 9:1. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24460974

71. Lang M, Waterworth S, and O'Brien A. What are the factors that influence the delivery of smoking cessation advice in critical care? Nursing in Critical Care, 2018; 23(5):237–44. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26177914

72. Bock B, Becker B, Niaura R, Partridge R, Fava J, et al. Smoking cessation among patients in an emergency chest pain observation unit: Outcomes of the Chest Pain Smoking Study. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 2008; 10(10):1523–31. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18946771/

73. Boudreaux ED, Baumann BM, Perry J, Marks D, Francies S, et al. Emergency department initiated treatments for tobacco (EDITT): a pilot study. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 2008; 36(3):314–25. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19050988

74. Lynch A and Quigley P. ExHALED study: prevalence of smoking and harm levels in an emergency department cohort. Emergency Medicine Australasia, 2010; 22(4):287–95. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20636360

75. Pelletier JH, Strout TD, and Baumann MR. A systematic review of smoking cessation interventions in the emergency setting. American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 2014; 32(7):713–24. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24768666

76. Lemhoefer C, Rabe GL, Wellmann J, Bernstein SL, Cheung KW, et al. Emergency Department-Initiated Tobacco Control: Update of a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Preventing Chronic Disease, 2017; 14:E89. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28981403

77. Bernstein SL, D'Onofrio G, Rosner J, O'Malley S, Makuch R, et al. Successful Tobacco Dependence Treatment in Low-Income Emergency Department Patients: A Randomized Trial. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 2015; 66(2):140–7. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25920384

78. Weiland T, Jelinek GA, Taylor SE, and Taylor DM. Tobacco smoking by adult emergency department patients in Australia: a point-prevalence study. Public Health Res Pract, 2016; 26(3). Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27421346

79. McGain F, Durie ML, Bates S, Polmear CM, Meyer J, et al. Smoking cessation therapy in Australian and New Zealand intensive care units: a multicentre point prevalence study. Critical Care and Resuscitation, 2018; 20(1):68–73. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29458324

80. Rigotti NA, Munafo MR, and Stead LF Interventions for smoking cessation in hospitalised patients. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007  DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001837.pub2. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17636688

81. Rigotti NA, Munafo MR, and Stead LF. Smoking cessation interventions for hospitalized smokers: a systematic review. Archives of Internal Medicine, 2008; 168(18):1950–60. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18852395

82. Amaral LMD, Macedo A, Lanzieri IO, Andrade RO, Richter KP, et al. Promoting cessation in hospitalized smoking patients: a systematic review. Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992), 2020; 66(6):849–60. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32696879

83. Carson-Chahhoud KV, Smith BJ, Peters MJ, Brinn MP, Ameer F, et al. Two-year efficacy of varenicline tartrate and counselling for inpatient smoking cessation (STOP study): A randomized controlled clinical trial. PLoS ONE, 2020; 15(4):e0231095. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32348306

84. Ng KT, Gillies M, and Griffith DM. Effect of nicotine replacement therapy on mortality, delirium, and duration of therapy in critically ill smokers: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, 2017; 45(5):556–61. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28911284

85. Kerr A, McVey JT, Wood AM, and Van Haren F. Safety of nicotine replacement therapy in critically ill smokers: a retrospective cohort study. Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, 2016; 44(6):758–61. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27832565

86. Wilby KJ and Harder CK. Nicotine replacement therapy in the intensive care unit: a systematic review. Journal of Intensive Care Medicine, 2014; 29(1):22–30. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22513249

87. Slattery C, Freund M, Gillham K, Knight J, Wolfenden L, et al. Increasing smoking cessation care across a network of hospitals: an implementation study. Implementation Science, 2016; 11(1):28. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26927023

88. Freund M, Campbell E, Paul C, Sakrouge R, Lecathelinais C, et al. Increasing hospital-wide delivery of smoking cessation care for nicotine-dependent in-patients: a multi-strategic intervention trial. Addiction, 2009; 104(5):839–49. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19344446

89. Vega S and Stolare I. Smoking cessation education increases interventions in a New Zealand hospital: World No Tobacco Day revisited. New Zealand Medical Journal, 2010; 123(1317):35–40. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20657629

90. Routine smoking cessation support for hospital inpatients could reduce mortality. Nursing Standard, 2014; 29(13):16–7. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25424082

91. Mendelsohn C. Managing nicotine dependence in NSW hospitals under the Smoke-free Health Care Policy. Public Health Res Pract, 2015; 25(3):e2531533. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26243492

92. Carlebach S and Hamilton S. Understanding the nurse's role in smoking cessation. British Journal of Nursing, 2009; 18(11):672–4, 6. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19525911

93. Li M, Koide K, Tanaka M, Kiya M, and Okamoto R. Factors Associated with Nursing Interventions for Smoking Cessation: A Narrative Review. Nurs Rep, 2021; 11(1):64–74. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/34968313

94. Sarna L, Bialous SA, Rice VH, and Wewers ME. Promoting tobacco dependence treatment in nursing education. Drug and Alcohol Review, 2009; 28(5):507–16. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19737209

95. Rice VH, Heath L, Livingstone-Banks J, and Hartmann-Boyce J. Nursing interventions for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2017; 12:CD001188. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29243221

96. Keller KG and Lach HW. Nurse Counseling as Part of a Multicomponent Tobacco Treatment Intervention: An Integrative Review. J Addict Nurs, 2020; 31(3):161–79. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32868609

97. Thomas D, Abramson MJ, Bonevski B, Taylor S, Poole SG, et al. Integrating smoking cessation into routine care in hospitals--a randomized controlled trial. Addiction, 2016; 111(4):714–23. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26597421

98. US Department of Health and Human Services. The health consequences of smoking: a report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, Georgia: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2004. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/sgr/index.htm

99. Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists (ANZCA). Guidelines on smoking as related to the perioperative period. 2014. Available from: https://www.anzca.edu.au/getattachment/5deb6800-e8f9-453f-b9a6-a151a9323249/PS12-Guideline-on-smoking-as-related-to-the-perioperative-period

100. Theadom A and Cropley M. Effects of preoperative smoking cessation on the incidence and risk of intraoperative and postoperative complications in adult smokers: a systematic review. Tobacco Control, 2006; 15(5):352–8. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16998168

101. Lindstrom D, Sadr Azodi O, Wladis A, Tonnesen H, Linder S, et al. Effects of a perioperative smoking cessation intervention on postoperative complications: a randomized trial. Annals of Surgery, 2008; 248(5):739–45. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18948800

102. Nasell H, Adami J, Samnegard E, Tonnesen H, and Ponzer S. Effect of smoking cessation intervention on results of acute fracture surgery: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume, 2010; 92(6):1335–42. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20516308

103. Thomsen T, Villebro N, and Moller AM. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2010; 7(7):CD002294. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20614429

104. Warner DO, Klesges RC, Dale LC, Offord KP, Schroeder DR, et al. Telephone quitlines to help surgical patients quit smoking patient and provider attitudes. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2008; 35(6 Suppl):S486–93. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19012843

105. Shi Y and Warner DO. Surgery as a teachable moment for smoking cessation. Anesthesiology, 2010; 112(1):102–7. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19996946

106. Moller A and Villebro N Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005  DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002294.pub2. Available from: http://www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD002294/frame.html

107. Sadr Azodi O, Lindström D, Adami J, Tønnesen H, Nåsell H, et al. The efficacy of a smoking cessation programme in patients undergoing elective surgery – a randomised clinical trial. Anaesthesia, 2009; 64(3):259–65. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19302637/

108. Thomsen T, Tonnesen H, and Moller AM. Effect of preoperative smoking cessation interventions on postoperative complications and smoking cessation. British Journal of Surgery, 2009; 96(5):451–61. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19358172

109. Zaki A, Abrishami A, Wong J, and Chung F. Interventions in the preoperative clinic for long term smoking cessation: a quantitative systematic review. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, 2008; 55(1):11–21. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18166743/

110. Zaballos M, Canal MI, Martinez R, Membrillo MJ, Gonzalez FJ, et al. Preoperative smoking cessation counseling activities of anesthesiologists: a cross-sectional study. BMC Anesthesiol, 2015; 15:60. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25927569

111. Turner SR, Lai H, and Bedard EL. Smoking cessation counseling by surgical and nonsurgical residents: opportunities for health promotion education. Journal of Surgical Education, 2014; 71(6):892–5. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24818539

112. Wolfenden L, Wiggers J, Campbell E, Knight J, Kerridge R, et al. Providing comprehensive smoking cessation care to surgical patients: the case for computers. Drug and Alcohol Review, 2009; 28(1):60–5. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19320677

113. Tonnesen H, Faurschou P, Ralov H, Molgaard-Nielsen D, Thomas G, et al. Risk reduction before surgery. The role of the primary care provider in preoperative smoking and alcohol cessation. BMC Health Services Research, 2010; 10(1):121. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20462417

114. Luxton NA, MacKenzie R, and Shih P. Smoking Cessation Care in Cardiothoracic Surgery: A Qualitative Study Exploring the Views of Australian Clinicians. Heart Lung Circ, 2019; 28(8):1246–52. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29805088

115. Prestwich A, Moore S, Kotze A, Budworth L, Lawton R, et al. How Can Smoking Cessation Be Induced Before Surgery? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Behavior Change Techniques and Other Intervention Characteristics. Front Psychol, 2017; 8:915. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28638356

116. Taylor H, Karahalios A, and Bramley D. Long-term effectiveness of the preoperative smoking cessation programme at Western Health. ANZ Journal of Surgery, 2017; 87(9):677–81. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28733996

117. Song F, Brown TJ, Blyth A, Maskrey V, McNamara I, et al. Identifying and recruiting smokers for preoperative smoking cessation--a systematic review of methods reported in published studies. Syst Rev, 2015; 4(1):157. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26560883

118. Jamal A, Dube SR, and King BA. Tobacco Use Screening and Counseling During Hospital Outpatient Visits Among US Adults, 2005-2010. Preventing Chronic Disease, 2015; 12:E132. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26292063

119. Khara M, Okoli C, Nagarajan VD, Aziz F, and Hanley C. Smoking cessation outcomes of referral to a specialist hospital outpatient clinic. American Journal on Addictions, 2015; 24(6):561–70. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26303966

120. Rice VH, Hartmann-Boyce J, and Stead LF. Nursing interventions for smoking cessation. The Cochrane Library, 2013. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD001188.pub4/abstract

121. Paone G, Serpilli M, Girardi E, Conti V, Principe R, et al. The combination of a smoking cessation programme with rehabilitation increases stop-smoking rate. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 2008; 40(8):672–7. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19020702

122. Kozower BD, Lau CL, Phillips JV, Burks SG, Jones DR, et al. A thoracic surgeon-directed tobacco cessation intervention. Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 2010; 89(3):926–30; discussion 30. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20172155

123. Brown TJ, Todd A, O'Malley C, Moore HJ, Husband AK, et al. Community pharmacy-delivered interventions for public health priorities: a systematic review of interventions for alcohol reduction, smoking cessation and weight management, including meta-analysis for smoking cessation. BMJ Open, 2016; 6(2):e009828. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26928025

124. Joyce AW SV, Burrows S, McManus A, Howat P, Maycock B. Community Pharmacy's Role in Promoting Healthy Behaviours. Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research, 2007; 37(1):42–4. Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/j.2055-2335.2007.tb00657.x

125. Guidelines for pharmacists providing smoking cessation support. Pharmaceutical Society of Australia, 2021. Available from: https://my.psa.org.au/s/article/Guidelines-for-pharmacists-providing-smoking-cessation-support

126. Dent L, Harris K, and Noonan C. Tobacco interventions delivered by pharmacists: a summary and systematic review. Pharmacotherapy, 2007; 27(7):1040–51. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17594210/

127. Sinclair HK, Bond CM, and Stead LF Community pharmacy personnel interventions for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2004  DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003698.pub2. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14974031

128. Ragucci KR and Shrader SP. A method for educating patients and documenting smoking status in an electronic medical record. Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 2009; 43(10):1616–20. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19737992

129. Thavorn K and Chaiyakunapruk N. A cost-effectiveness analysis of a community pharmacist-based smoking cessation programme in Thailand. Tobacco Control, 2008; 17(3):177–82. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18285385

130. Shen X, Bachyrycz A, Anderson JR, Tinker D, and Raisch DW. Quitting patterns and predictors of success among participants in a tobacco cessation program provided by pharmacists in New Mexico. J Manag Care Pharm, 2014; 20(6):579–87. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24856596

131. Saba M, Diep J, Saini B, and Dhippayom T. Meta-analysis of the effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions in community pharmacy. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 2014; 39(3):240–7. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24749899

132. Peletidi A, Nabhani-Gebara S, and Kayyali R. Smoking Cessation Support Services at Community Pharmacies in the UK: A Systematic Review. Hellenic Journal of Cardiology, 2016; 57(1):7–15. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26856195

133. O'Reilly E, Frederick E, and Palmer E. Models for pharmacist-delivered tobacco cessation services: a systematic review. Journal of the American Pharmacists Association, 2019; 59(5):742–52. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31307963

134. Carson-Chahhoud KV, Livingstone-Banks J, Sharrad KJ, Kopsaftis Z, Brinn MP, et al. Community pharmacy personnel interventions for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2019; 2019(10). Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31684695

135. Hudmon KS, Hemberger KK, Corelli RL, Kroon LA, and Prokhorov AV. The pharmacist's role in smoking cessation counseling: perceptions of users of nonprescription nicotine replacement therapy. Journal of the American Pharmacists Association, 2002; 43(5):573–82. Available from: http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/14626749

136. Saba M, Diep J, Bittoun R, and Saini B. Provision of smoking cessation services in Australian community pharmacies: a simulated patient study. Int J Clin Pharm, 2014; 36(3):604–14. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24718946

137. Bauld L, Chesterman J, Ferguson J, and Judge K. A comparison of the effectiveness of group-based and pharmacy-led smoking cessation treatment in Glasgow. Addiction, 2009; 104(2):308–16. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19149828

138. Boyd KA and Briggs AH. Cost-effectiveness of pharmacy and group behavioural support smoking cessation services in Glasgow. Addiction, 2009; 104(2):317–25. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19149829

139. Cantor SB, Deshmukh AA, Luca NS, Nogueras-Gonzalez GM, Rajan T, et al. Cost-effectiveness analysis of smoking-cessation counseling training for physicians and pharmacists. Addictive Behaviors, 2015; 45:79–86. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25644592

140. Patwardhan PD and Chewning BA. Ask, advise and refer: hypothesis generation to promote a brief tobacco-cessation intervention in community pharmacies. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice, 2009; 17(4):221–9. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20161528

141. Williams DM. Preparing pharmacy students and pharmacists to provide tobacco cessation counselling. Drug and Alcohol Review, 2009; 28(5):533–40. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19737211

142. Appalasamy JR, Selvaraj A, Wong YH, Dujaili JA, and Kow CS. Effects of educational interventions on the smoking cessation service provided by community pharmacists: A systematic review. Res Social Adm Pharm, 2022; 18(9):3524–33. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/35168890

143. Greenhalgh T, Macfarlane F, Steed L, and Walton R. What works for whom in pharmacist-led smoking cessation support: realist review. BMC Medicine, 2016; 14(1):209. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27978837

144. Ramseier C and Fundak A. Tobacco use cessation provided by dental hygienists. International Journal of Dental Hygiene, 2009; 7(1):39–48. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19215310/

145. Ramseier CA, Woelber JP, Kitzmann J, Detzen L, Carra MC, et al. Impact of risk factor control interventions for smoking cessation and promotion of healthy lifestyles in patients with periodontitis: A systematic review. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 2020; 47 Suppl 22:90–106. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31912512

146. Nasser M. Evidence summary: is smoking cessation an effective and cost-effective service to be introduced in NHS dentistry? British Dental Journal, 2011; 210(4):169–77. Available from: http://www.nature.com/bdj/journal/v210/n4/full/sj.bdj.2011.117.html

147. Holliday R, Hong B, McColl E, Livingstone-Banks J, and Preshaw PM. Interventions for tobacco cessation delivered by dental professionals. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2021; 2:CD005084. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33605440

148. Ford PJ, Tran P, Cockburn N, Keen B, Kavanagh DJ, et al. Survey of dental clinic patients: smoking and preferences for cessation support. Australian Dental Journal, 2016; 61(2):219–26. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26086696

149. Holliday R, McColl E, Bauld L, Preshaw PM, Sniehotta FF, et al. Perceived influences on smoking behaviour and perceptions of dentist-delivered smoking cessation advice: A qualitative interview study. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 2020; 48(5):433–9. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33448485

150. Bendotti H, McGowan K, and Lawler S. Utilisation of a brief tobacco smoking cessation intervention tool in public dental services. Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 2021; 32 Suppl 2:367–77. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33314415

151. The Role of Oral Health Practitioners in Tobacco Cessation: Adopted by the FDI General Assembly: 27-29 September 2021, Sydney, Australia. International Dental Journal, 2022; 72(1):22–3. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/35074204

152. Ramseier CA, Warnakulasuriya S, Needleman IG, Gallagher JE, Lahtinen A, et al. Consensus Report: 2nd European Workshop on Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation for Oral Health Professionals. International Dental Journal, 2010; 60(1):3–6. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20361571

153. Shelley D, Anno J, Tseng TY, Calip G, Wedeles J, et al. Implementing tobacco use treatment guidelines in public health dental clinics in New York City. Journal of Dental Education, 2011; 75(4):527–33. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21460273

154. Needleman IG, Binnie VI, Ainamo A, Carr AB, Fundak A, et al. Improving the effectiveness of tobacco use cessation (TUC). International Dental Journal, 2010; 60(1):50–9. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20361574

155. Omana-Cepeda C, Jane-Salas E, Estrugo-Devesa A, Chimenos-Kustner E, and Lopez-Lopez J. Effectiveness of dentist's intervention in smoking cessation: A review. J Clin Exp Dent, 2016; 8(1):e78–83. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26855711

156. Moafa I, Hoving C, van den Borne B, and Jafer M. Identifying Behavior Change Techniques Used in Tobacco Cessation Interventions by Oral Health Professionals and Their Relation to Intervention Effects-A Review of the Scientific Literature. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2021; 18(14). Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/34299931

157. Amemori M, Michie S, Korhonen T, Murtomaa H, and Kinnunen TH. Assessing implementation difficulties in tobacco use prevention and cessation counselling among dental providers. Implementation Science, 2011; 6(1):50. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21615948

158. Carter-Pokras OD, Johnson TM, Bethune LA, Ye C, Fried JL, et al. Lost opportunities for smoking cessation among adults with diabetes in Florida (2007) and Maryland (2006). Preventing Chronic Disease, 2011; 8(3):A51. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21477491

159. Jannat-Khah DP, McNeely J, Pereyra MR, Parish C, Pollack HA, et al. Dentists' self-perceived role in offering tobacco cessation services: results from a nationally representative survey, United States, 2010-2011. Preventing Chronic Disease, 2014; 11:E196. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25376018

160. Lozier EB and Gonzalez YM. Smoking cessation practices in the dental profession. Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice, 2009; 10(4):97–103. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19575060

161. Rosseel JP, Jacobs JE, Hilberink SR, Maassen IM, Segaar D, et al. Experienced barriers and facilitators for integrating smoking cessation advice and support into daily dental practice. A short report. British Dental Journal, 2011; 210(7):E10. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21475254

162. Pendharkar B, Levy SM, McQuistan MR, Qian F, Squier CA, et al. Fourth-year dental students' perceived barriers to providing tobacco intervention services. Journal of Dental Education, 2010; 74(10):1074–85. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20930238

163. Goel D, Chaudhary PK, Khan A, Patthi B, Singla A, et al. Acquaintance and Approach in the Direction of Tobacco Cessation Among Dental Practitioners-A Systematic Review. Int J Prev Med, 2020; 11:167. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33312476

164. Virtue SM, Waldron EM, Darabos K, DeAngelis C, Moore DA, et al. Dental Students' Attitudes Toward Tobacco Cessation in the Dental Setting: A Systematic Review. Journal of Dental Education, 2017; 81(5):500–16. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28461627

165. Lala R, Csikar J, Douglas G, and Muarry J. Factors that influence delivery of tobacco cessation support in general dental practice: a narrative review. Journal of Public Health Dentistry, 2017; 77(1):47–53. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27568867

166. Muzyka B, Cropley L, Oertling K, Andrieu S, and Anderson P. Assessment of dental faculty, staff, and students on knowledge of health effects associated with tobacco use. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, 2009; 15(2):135–8. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19202414/

167. Clareboets S, Sivarajasingam V, and Chestnutt IG. Smoking cessation advice: knowledge, attitude and practice among clinical dental students. British Dental Journal, 2010; 208(4):173–7. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20186204

168. Amemori M, Korhonen T, Kinnunen T, Michie S, and Murtomaa H. Enhancing implementation of tobacco use prevention and cessation counselling guideline among dental providers: a cluster randomised controlled trial. Implementation Science, 2011; 6(1):13. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21320312

169. Brocklehurst PR, Baker SR, and Speight PM. Primary care clinicians and the detection and referral of potentially malignant disorders in the mouth: a summary of the current evidence. Primary Dental Care, 2010; 17(2):65–71. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20353654

170. Richards W and Higgs G. An audit of smoking behaviours among patients attending two general dental practices in South Wales: an awareness-raising exercise for the dental team and patients. Primary Dental Care, 2010; 17(2):79–82. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20353656

171. Pau A, Olley RC, Murray S, Chana B, and Gallagher J. Dental hygienists' self-reported performance of tobacco cessation activities. Oral Health and Preventive Dentistry, 2011; 9(1):29–36. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21594204

172. Studts JL, Burris JL, Kearns DK, Worth CT, and Sorrell CL. Evidence-based tobacco cessation treatment by dental hygienists. Journal of Dental Hygiene, 2011; 85(1):13–21. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21396259

173. Ford P, Tran P, Keen B, and Gartner C. Survey of Australian oral health practitioners and their smoking cessation practices. Australian Dental Journal, 2015; 60(1):43–51; quiz 128. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25721277

174. Schauer GL, Agaku IT, King BA, and Malarcher AM. Health care provider advice for adolescent tobacco use: results from the 2011 National Youth Tobacco Survey. Pediatrics, 2014; 134(3):446–55. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25136037

175. Vered Y, Livny A, Zini A, Shabaita S, and Sgan-Cohen HD. Dental students' attitudes and behavior toward smoking cessation as part of their professional education. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 2010; 22(4):268–73. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20936573

176. Anders PL, Davis EL, and McCall WD, Jr. Dental students' attitudes toward tobacco cessation counseling. Journal of Dental Education, 2014; 78(1):56–63. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24385525

177. Jawed A and Jassal M. Hard to Reach or Just Not Enough? A Narrative Review of Inpatient Tobacco Cessation Programs in Pediatrics. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2021; 18(24). Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/34949029

178. Scheffers-van Schayck T, Mujcic A, Otten R, Engels R, and Kleinjan M. The Effectiveness of Smoking Cessation Interventions Tailored to Smoking Parents of Children Aged 0-18 Years: A Meta-Analysis. European Addiction Research, 2021; 27(4):278–93. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33311028

179. Foundation NH. Guide to management of hypertension 2008. Assessing and managing raised blood pressure in adults. 2008 Available from: http://www.heartfoundation.org.au/Professional_Information/Clinical_Practice/Hypertension.htm

180. Cardiologists should be less passive about smoking cessation. The Lancet, 2009; 373(9667):867. Available from: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(09)60518-3/fulltext

181. Kotseva K, Wood D, De Backer G, De Bacquer D, Pyorala K, et al. Cardiovascular prevention guidelines in daily practice: a comparison of EUROASPIRE I, II, and III surveys in eight European countries. Lancet, 2009; 373(9667):929–40. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19286092

182. Erhardt L. Cigarette smoking: an undertreated risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerosis, 2009; 205(1):23–32. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19217623

183. Aboyans V, Thomas D, and Lacroix P. The cardiologist and smoking cessation. Current Opinion in Cardiology, 2010; 25(5):469–77. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20671551

184. Trotter L and Scanlan M. Smoking cessation training for health professionals working with cardiac patients, in Quit evaluation studies  no.10. Melbourne: The Anti-Cancer Council of Victoria; 2000. p 97–108.

185. Mola A, Lloyd MM, and Villegas-Pantoja MA. A Mixed Method Review of Tobacco Cessation for the Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation Clinician. J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev, 2017; 37(3):160–74. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28448378

186. Conlon K, Pattinson L, and Hutton D. Attitudes of oncology healthcare practitioners towards smoking cessation: A systematic review of the facilitators, barriers and recommendations for delivery of advice and support to cancer patients. Radiography (Lond), 2017; 23(3):256–63. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28687295

187. Day FL, Sherwood E, Chen TY, Barbouttis M, Varlow M, et al. Oncologist provision of smoking cessation support: A national survey of Australian medical and radiation oncologists. Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology, 2018; 14(6):431–8. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29706029

188. DiGiacomo M, Simoes Dos Santos P, Furestad E, Hearnshaw G, Nichols S, et al. Cancer care clinicians' provision of smoking cessation support: A mixed methods study in New South Wales, Australia. Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology, 2022. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/35362249

189. Sosnowski R and Przewozniak K. The role of the urologist in smoking cessation: why is it important? Urol Oncol, 2015; 33(1):30–9. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25154777

190. Mendez-Rubio S, Salinas-Casado J, Esteban-Fuertes M, Mendez-Cea B, Sanz-de-Burgoa V, et al. Urological disease and tobacco. A review for raising the awareness of urologists. Actas Urologicas Espanolas, 2016; 40(7):424–33. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26920096

191. Nulsen B, Sands BE, Shah BJ, and Ungaro RC. Practices, attitudes, and knowledge about Crohn's disease and smoking cessation among gastroenterologists. European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 2018; 30(2):155-60. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29240002

192. Naranjo A, Khan NA, Cutolo M, Lee SS, Lazovskis J, et al. Smoking cessation advice by rheumatologists: results of an international survey. Rheumatology, 2014; 53(10):1825–9. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24840678

193. Demmert A, Grothues JM, and Rumpf HJ. Attitudes towards brief interventions to reduce smoking and problem drinking behaviour in gynaecological practice. Public Health, 2011; 125(4):182–6. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21439599

194. Schultz CR, Benson JJ, Cook DA, and Warner DO. Training for perioperative smoking cessation interventions: a national survey of anesthesiology program directors and residents. Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, 2014; 26(7):563–9. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25439420

195. Yousefzadeh A, Chung F, Wong DT, Warner DO, and Wong J. Smoking Cessation: The Role of the Anesthesiologist. Anesthesia and Analgesia, 2016; 122(5):1311–20. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27101492

196. Martinelli E, Palmer RM, Wilson RF, and Newton JT. Smoking behaviour and attitudes to periodontal health and quit smoking in patients with periodontal disease. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 2008; 35(11):944–54. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18976392

197. Rosenthal JS. The responsibility of plastic surgeons to help patients stop smoking. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 2002; 109(3):1201–2. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11884863

198. Caponnetto P, Polosa R, and Best D. Tobacco use cessation counseling of parents. Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 2008; 20(6):729–33. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19023920/

199. Winickoff JP, Park ER, Hipple BJ, Berkowitz A, Vieira C, et al. Clinical effort against secondhand smoke exposure: development of framework and intervention. Pediatrics, 2008; 122(2):e363–75. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18676523

200. Gray J, Eden G, and Williams M. Developing the public health role of a front line clinical service: integrating stop smoking advice into routine podiatry services. Journal of Public Health, 2007; 29(2):118–22. Available from: http://jpubhealth.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/29/2/118

201. Kennedy RD, Spafford MM, Schultz AS, Iley MD, and Zawada V. Smoking cessation referrals in optometric practice: a canadian pilot study. Optometry and Vision Science, 2011; 88(6):766–71. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21460753

202. Sheck LH, Field AP, McRobbie H, and Wilson GA. Helping patients to quit smoking in the busy optometric practice. Clin Exp Optom, 2009; 92(2):75–7. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19278457

203. Downie LE and Keller PR. The self-reported clinical practice behaviors of Australian optometrists as related to smoking, diet and nutritional supplementation. PLoS ONE, 2015; 10(4):e0124533. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25886641

204. Downie LE, Douglass A, Guest D, and Keller PR. What do patients think about the role of optometrists in providing advice about smoking and nutrition? Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 2017; 37(2):202–11. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28211179

205. Bodner ME and Dean E. Advice as a smoking cessation strategy: a systematic review and implications for physical therapists. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, 2009; 25(5-6):369–407. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19842864

206. Bodner ME, Miller WC, Rhodes RE, and Dean E. Smoking cessation and counseling: knowledge and views of Canadian physical therapists. Physical Therapy, 2011; 91(7):1051–62. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21546565

207. Luxton N and Redfern J. The role of physiotherapists in smoking cessation. J Physiother, 2020; 66(4):207–10. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33036933

208. Taylor GM, Lindson N, Farley A, Leinberger-Jabari A, Sawyer K, et al. Smoking cessation for improving mental health. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2021; 3:CD013522. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33687070

209. Bodie LP. To treat or not to treat: should psychologists treat tobacco use disorder? Psychol Serv, 2014; 11(3):317–23. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24867147

210. Kleinfelder J, Price JH, Dake JA, Jordan TR, and Price JA. Tobacco training in clinical social work graduate programs. Health and Social Work, 2013; 38(3):173–81. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24437023

211. Bryant J, Bonevski B, Paul C, O'Brien J, and Oakes W. Developing cessation interventions for the social and community service setting: a qualitative study of barriers to quitting among disadvantaged Australian smokers. BMC Public Health, 2011; 11:493. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21699730

212. Bryant J, Bonevski B, Paul C, O'Brien J, and Oakes W. Delivering smoking cessation support to disadvantaged groups: a qualitative study of the potential of community welfare organizations. Health Education Research, 2010; 25(6):979–90. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20884732

213. Parnell A, Box E, Chapman L, Bonevski B, Anwar-McHenry J, et al. Receptiveness to smoking cessation training among community service organisation staff. Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 2020; 31(3):418–22. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31278872

214. Reisinger SA, Kamel S, Seiber E, Klein EG, Paskett ED, et al. Cost-Effectiveness of Community-Based Tobacco Dependence Treatment Interventions: Initial Findings of a Systematic Review. Preventing Chronic Disease, 2019; 16:E161. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31831106

215. Bonevski B, Twyman L, Paul C, D'Este C, West R, et al. Smoking cessation intervention delivered by social service organisations for a diverse population of Australian disadvantaged smokers: A pragmatic randomised controlled trial. Preventive Medicine, 2018; 112:38–44. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29626552

216. Parnell A, Box E, Biagioni N, Bonevski B, Anwar-McHenry J, et al. Factors influencing the willingness of community service organisation staff to provide smoking cessation support: a qualitative study. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 2020; 44(2):116–20. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32050298

217. Bryant J, Bonevski B, and Paul C. A survey of smoking prevalence and interest in quitting among social and community service organisation clients in Australia: a unique opportunity for reaching the disadvantaged. BMC Public Health, 2011; 11(1):827. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22026718

218. Bryant J, Bonevski B, Paul C, Hull P, and O'Brien J. Implementing a smoking cessation program in social and community service organisations: a feasibility and acceptability trial. Drug and Alcohol Review, 2012; 31(5):678–84. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22146050

219. Bonevski B, O'Brien J, Frost S, Yiow L, Oakes W, et al. Novel setting for addressing tobacco-related disparities: a survey of community welfare organization smoking policies, practices and attitudes. Health Education Research, 2013; 28(1):46–57. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22798564

220. Muramoto ML, Gordon JS, Bell ML, Nichter M, Floden L, et al. Tobacco Cessation Training for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Practitioners: Results of a Practice-Based Trial. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2016; 51(2):e35–e44. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27061892

221. Anderson P. Overview of interventions to enhance primary-care provider management of patients with substance-use disorders. Drug and Alcohol Review, 2009; 28(5):567–74. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19737215

222. Richmond R, Mendelsohn C, and Kehoe L. Family physicians' utilization of a brief smoking cessation program following reinforcement contact after training: a randomized trial. Preventive Medicine, 1997; 27(1):77–83. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9465357/

223. Gordon JS and Mahabee-Gittens EM. Development of a Web-based tobacco cessation educational program for pediatric nurses and respiratory therapists. Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 2011; 42(3):136–44. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21162465

224. Prokhorov AV, Hudmon KS, Marani S, Foxhall L, Ford KH, et al. Engaging physicians and pharmacists in providing smoking cessation counseling. Archives of Internal Medicine, 2010; 170(18):1640–6. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20937922

225. Carson KV, Verbiest ME, Crone MR, Brinn MP, Esterman AJ, et al. Training health professionals in smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2012; (5):CD000214. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22592671

226. Victor JC, Brewster JM, Ferrence R, Ashley MJ, Cohen JE, et al. Tobacco-related medical education and physician interventions with parents who smoke: Survey of Canadian family physicians and pediatricians. Canadian Family Physician, 2010; 56(2):157–63. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20154251

227. Herie M, Connolly H, Voci S, Dragonetti R, and Selby P. Changing practitioner behavior and building capacity in tobacco cessation treatment: the TEACH project. Patient Education and Counseling, 2012; 86(1):49–56. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21612884

228. Martin BA, Bruskiewitz RH, and Chewning BA. Effect of a tobacco cessation continuing professional education program on pharmacists' confidence, skills, and practice-change behaviors. Journal of the American Pharmacists Association, 2010; 50(1):9–16. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20097634

229. Martin BA and Chewning BA. Evaluating pharmacists' ability to counsel on tobacco cessation using two standardized patient scenarios. Patient Education and Counseling, 2011; 83(3):319–24. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21237610

230. Sheffer CE, Barone CP, and Anders ME. Training health care providers in the treatment of tobacco use and dependence: pre- and post-training results. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 2009; 15(4):607–13. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19674215/

231. Hyndman K, Thomas RE, Schira HR, Bradley J, Chachula K, et al. The Effectiveness of Tobacco Dependence Education in Health Professional Students' Practice: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2019; 16(21). Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31661922

232. Kastaun S, Leve V, Hildebrandt J, Funke C, Klosterhalfen S, et al. Training general practitioners in the ABC versus 5As method of delivering stop-smoking advice: a pragmatic, two-arm cluster randomised controlled trial. ERJ Open Res, 2021; 7(3). Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/34322552

233. Russell L, Whiffen R, Chapman L, Just J, Dean E, et al. Hospital staff perspectives on the provision of smoking cessation care: a qualitative description study. BMJ Open, 2021; 11(5):e044489. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/34011592

234. McRobbie H, Hajek P, Feder G, and Eldridge S. A cluster-randomised controlled trial of a brief training session to facilitate general practitioner referral to smoking cessation treatment. Tobacco Control, 2008; 17(3):173–6. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18522969

235. Bernstein SL, Jearld S, Prasad D, Bax P, and Bauer U. Rapid implementation of a smokers' quitline fax referral service in an urban area. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 2009; 20(1):55–63. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19202246

236. Richmond R, Educating medical students about tobacco: planning and implementation. Tobacco Prevention Section International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Paris, France; 1996. Available from: https://catalogue.nla.gov.au/Record/1470231.

237. Leong SL, Lewis PR, Curry WJ, and Gingrich DL. Tobacco world: evaluation of a tobacco cessation training program for third-year medical students. Academic Medicine, 2008; 83(10 Suppl):S25–8. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18820494

238. Kosowicz LY, Pfeiffer CA, and Vargas M. Long-term retention of smoking cessation counseling skills learned in the first year of medical school. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 2007; 22(8):1161–5. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17557189

239. Spollen JJ, Thrush CR, Mui DV, Woods MB, Tariq SG, et al. A randomized controlled trial of behavior change counseling education for medical students. Medical Teacher, 2010; 32(4):e170–7. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20353316

240. Ye L, Goldie C, Sharma T, John S, Bamford M, et al. Tobacco-Nicotine Education and Training for Health-Care Professional Students and Practitioners: A Systematic Review. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 2018; 20(5):531–42. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28371888

241. Chatkin J and Chatkin G. Learning about smoking during medical school: are we still missing opportunities? International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 2009; 13(4):429–37. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19335946/

242. Raupach T, Shahab L, Baetzing S, Hoffmann B, Hasenfuss G, et al. Medical students lack basic knowledge about smoking: findings from two European medical schools. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 2009; 11(1):92–8. Available from: http://ntr.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/11/1/92

243. Kralikova E, Bonevski B, Stepankova L, Pohlova L, and Mladkova N. Postgraduate medical education on tobacco and smoking cessation in Europe. Drug and Alcohol Review, 2009; 28(5):474–83. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19737206

244. Richmond R. Education and training for health professionals and students in tobacco, alcohol and other drugs. Drug and Alcohol Review, 2009; 28(5):463–5. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19737204

245. Zwar NA, Richmond RL, Davidson D, and Hasan I. Postgraduate education for doctors in smoking cessation. Drug and Alcohol Review, 2009; 28(5):466–73. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19737205

246. Selby P, Goncharenko K, Barker M, Fahim M, Timothy V, et al. Review and evaluation of online tobacco dependence treatment training programs for health care practitioners. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 2015; 17(4):e97. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25887187

247. McCullough A, Fisher M, Goldstein A, Kramer K, and Ripley-Moffitt C. Smoking as a vital sign: prompts to ask and assess increase cessation counseling. The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 2009; 22(6):625–32. Available from: http://www.jabfm.org/cgi/content/full/22/6/625

248. Szatkowski L, McNeill A, Lewis S, and Coleman T. A comparison of patient recall of smoking cessation advice with advice recorded in electronic medical records. BMC Public Health, 2011; 11:291. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21569283

249. Young AL, Rankin NM, Whippy E, Cooke S, Milross C, et al. Implementation and evaluation of a smoking cessation checklist implemented within Australian cancer services. Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology, 2022. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/35238146

250. Linder JA, Rigotti NA, Schneider LI, Kelley JH, Brawarsky P, et al. An electronic health record-based intervention to improve tobacco treatment in primary care: a cluster-randomized controlled trial. Archives of Internal Medicine, 2009; 169(8):781–7. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19398690

251. Boyle R, Solberg L, and Fiore M. Use of electronic health records to support smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2014; 12(12):CD008743. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25547090

252. Karn S, Fernandez A, Grossberg LA, Robertson T, Sharp B, et al. Systematically Improving Tobacco Cessation Patient Services Through Electronic Medical Record Integration. Health Promotion Practice, 2016; 17(4):482–9. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27199147

253. Abrams DB, Graham AL, Levy DT, Mabry PL, and Orleans CT. Boosting population quits through evidence-based cessation treatment and policy. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2010; 38(3 Suppl):S351–63. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20176308

254. White S, McCaffrey N, and Scollo M. Tobacco dependence treatment in Australia – an untapped opportunity for reducing the smoking burden. Public Health Research & Practice, 2020. Available from: https://www.phrp.com.au/issues/september-2020-volume-30-issue-3/tobacco-dependence-treatment-an-untapped-opportunity/

255. Levy DT, Graham AL, Mabry PL, Abrams DB, and Orleans CT. Modeling the impact of smoking-cessation treatment policies on quit rates. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2010; 38(3 Suppl):S364–72. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20176309

256. Kaslow AA, Romano PS, Schwarz E, Shaikh U, and Tong EK. Building and scaling-up California quits: Supporting health systems change for tobacco treatment. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2018; 55(6 Suppl 2):S214–S21. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30454676

257. VanFrank B and Presley-Cantrell L. A comprehensive approach to increase adult tobacco cessation. JAMA, 2021; 325(3):232–3. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33464294