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Tobacco In Australia Book

Tobacco in Australia 

A comprehensive review of the major issues in smoking and health in Australia, compiled by the Cancer Council Victoria.  Production of editions 2 to 4 of this publication has been funded by the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing. Ongoing updating is also being funded by the Australian Government Department of Health, with contributions from Cancer Councils in all states and territories, Quit, NSW Health, ACT Health, and ACOSH. 

This work has been produced with the objective of bringing about a reduction in death and disease caused by tobacco use. Much of it has been derived from other published sources and these should be quoted where appropriate. The text may be freely reproduced and figures and graphs (except where reproduced from other sources) may be used, giving appropriate acknowledgement to Cancer Council Victoria.

Editors and authors of this work have tried to ensure that the text is free from errors or inconsistencies. However in a resource of this size it is probable that some irregularities remain. Please notify Cancer Council Victoria if you become aware of matters in the text that require correction.

Suggested citation

Greenhalgh, EM, Scollo, MM and Winstanley, MH. Tobacco in Australia: Facts and issues. Melbourne: Cancer Council Victoria; 2020. Available from www.TobaccoInAustralia.org.au

OR

<Author(s) of relevant chapter section>, <Name of chapter section> in Greenhalgh, EM, Scollo, MM and Winstanley, MH [editors]. Tobacco in Australia: Facts and issues. Melbourne: Cancer Council Victoria; <Date last updated>. Available from <url of relevant chapter or section>

A complete EndNote library of citations for all Tobacco in Australia: Facts & issues chapters and sections can be downloaded here

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For a list of forthcoming updates, see here

  • Section 13.6 Revenue from tobacco taxes in Australia, updated October 2021
  • Section 3.15 The impact of smoking on treatment of disease, updated October 2021
  • Section 3.6 Reproductive health, updated October 2021
  • Section 1.10 Prevalence of smoking in other high-risk sub-groups of the population, updated October 2021
  • Section 7.19 Interventions for particular groups, updated October 2021
  • Section 18B.8 Legal status in Australia, updated October 2021
  • Section 15.7 Legislation to ban smoking in public spaces, updated October 2021
  • Section 9.2 Trends over time in smoking among priority populations in Australia, updated October 2021
  • Section 7.11 Smoking cessation and pregnancy, updated September 2021
  • Section 8.4 Smoking among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and teenagers, updated September 2021
  • Section 10.15 The environmental impact of tobacco production, updated September 2021
  • Section 9.6 Smoking, ill health, financial stress and smoking-related poverty among highly disadvantaged groups, updated September 2021
  • Section 8.3 Prevalence of tobacco use among Aboriginal peoples and Torres Strait Islanders, updated September 2021
  • Section 9.1 Socio-economic position and disparities in tobacco exposure and use, updated September 2021
  • Section 19.0 Background to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, updated September 2021
  • Section 19.1 WHO FCTC Governance Framework, updated September 2021
  • Section 19.2 Implications of the WHO FCTC for Australia, updated September 2021
  • Section 19.4 Obligations relating to demand reduction for tobacco products, updated September 2021
  • Section 19.5 Obligations relating to supply-reduction for tobacco products, updated September 2021
  • Section 19.7 Obligations regarding international cooperation and exchange of information and resources, updated September 2021
  • Section 19.8 Enforcement of the WHO FCTC, updated September 2021
  • Section 19.9 Impact of the WHO FCTC and role in the context of global governance, updated September 2021
  • Section 17.2 The costs and benefits of smoking to the Australian economy, updated September 2021
  • Section 13.2 Tobacco taxes in Australia, updated September 2021
  • Section 18.3 Smoking reduction, updated September 2021
  • Section 3.8 Child health and maternal smoking before and after birth, updated September 2021
  • Section 3.7 Pregnancy and smoking, updated September 2021
  • Section 11A.6 International flow-on effects, updated September 2021
  • Section 3.11 Dental diseases, updated August 2021
  • Section 3.1 Smoking and cardiovascular disease, updated August 2021
  • Section 16.5 Legal cases initiated by tobacco industry, updated August 2021
  • Section 18B.12 Influences on the uptake of e-cigarettes, updated August 2021
  • Section 4.10 Cancers of other sites,updated July 2021
  • Section 3.9 Increased susceptibility to infection in smokers, updated July 2021
  • Section 11A.6 International flow-on effects, updated July 2021
  • Section 3.21 Health effects of young people who smoke, updated July 2021
  • Section 18B.2 Electronic cigarettes: Advertising and promotion, updated July 2021
  • Section 2.4 Expenditure on tobacco products, updated June 2021
  • Section 13.3 The price of tobacco products in Australia, updated June 2021
  • Section 3.23 Smoking, dementia and cognition, updated June 2021
  • Section 3.22 Poorer quality of life and loss of function, updated June 2021
  • Section 10.7 Market share and brand share in Australia, updated June 2021
  • Section 3.15 The impact of smoking on treatment of disease, updated June 2021
  • Section 3.14 Skin, updated June 2021
  • Section 3.4 Lung cancer, updated June 2021
  • Section 3.5 Other cancers, updated June 2021
  • Section 3.13 Musculoskeletal diseases, updated June 2021
  • Section 3.27 Health effects of smoking tobacco in other forms, updated May 2021
  • Section 3.8 Child health and maternal smoking before and after birth, updated May 2021
  • Section 3.9 Increased susceptibility to infection in smokers, updated May 2021
  • Section 3.7 Pregnancy and smoking, updated May 2021
  • Section 7.17 Contingency management/incentives, updated May 2021
  • Section 12.8 Menthol and confectionery/liqueur flavoured cigarettes, updated May 2021
  • Section 3.12 Gastro-intestinal diseases, updated May 2021
  • Section 14.3 Public education campaigns to discourage smoking: the Australian experience, updated May 2021
  • Section 13.6 Revenue from tobacco taxes in Australia, updated May 2021
  • Section 7.16 Pharmacotherapies, updated May 2021
  • Section 3.4 Lung cancer, updated May 2021
  • Section 3.5 Other cancers, updated May 2021
  • Section 3.18 Other conditions with possible links to smoking, updated May 2021
  • Section 2.3 Self-reported measures of tobacco consumption, updated May 2021
  • Section 6.8 Interactions between tobacco smoke and medications, updated May 2021
  • Section 11A.6 Packaging as promotion; International flow-on effects, updated April 2021
  • Section 18B.3 Electronic cigarettes; Extent of use, updated April 2021 
  • Section 2.0, Introduction: Trends in tobacco consumption in Tobacco, updated March 2021
  • Section 2.5, Industry sales figures as estimates for consumption, updated March 2021
  • Section 11A6, International flow-on effects, updated March 2021
  • Section 4.17, Health effects of secondhand smoke for infants and children, updated March 2021
  • Section 3.28 Health 'benefits' of smoking?, updated March 2021
  • Section 10.6 Retail value and volume of the Australian tobacco market, updated March 2021
  • Section 1.13 Smoking by Australian states and territories, updated March 2021
  • Section 1.10 Prevalence of smoking in other high-risk sub-groups of the population, updated March 2021
  • Section 1.12 Prevalence of use of different types of tobacco product, updated March 2021
  • Section 13.2 Tobacco taxes in Australia, updated March 2021
  • Section 13.10 Arguments against tax increases promoted by the tobacco industry, updated March 2021
  • Section 3.9.12 Coronaviruses and the COVID-19 pandemic, updated March 2021
  • Section 1.5 Prevalence of smoking—middle-aged and older adults, updated February 2021
  • Section 1.7 Trends in the prevalence of smoking by socio-economic status, updated February 2021
  • Section 1.8 Trends in prevalence of smoking by country of birth, updated February 2021
  • Section 3.25 Smoking compared with or in combination with other pollutants, updated February 2021
  • Section 4.5 Prevalence of exposure to secondhand smoke in the home, updated February 2021
  • Section 1.3 Prevalence of smoking—adults, updated February 2021
  • Section 1.4 Prevalence of smoking—young adults, updated February 2021
  • Section 18.3 Smoking reduction, updated February 2021
  • Section 4.5 Prevalence of exposure to secondhand smoke in the home, updated February 2021
  • Section 11.9 Retail promotion and access, updated February 2021
  • Section 3.24 Genetic influences on tobacco-caused disease, updated February 2021
  • Section 3.2 Respiratory diseases (excluding lung cancer), updated December 2020
  • Section 3.1 Smoking and cardiovascular disease, updated December 2020
  • Section 3.9 Increased susceptibility to infection in smokers, updated December 2020
  • Section 3.5 Other cancers, updated November 2020
  • Section 3.27 Health effects of smoking tobacco in other forms, updated November 2020
  • Section 5.10 Cultural background, updated November 2020
  • Section 5.8 The smoking behaviour of peers, and peer attitudes and norms, updated November 2020
  • Section 5.18 Uptake: a concluding note, updated November 2020
  • Chapter 19 FCTC, updated October 2020
  • Section 13.0 Introduction - The pricing and taxation of tobacco products in Australia, updated September 2020
  • Section 5.21 Reducing tobacco access and supply, updated September 2020
  • Section 5.17 Factors influencing uptake of smoking later in life, updated September 2020
  • Section 13.4 The affordability of tobacco products, updated August 2020
  • Section 18B.10 Key Australian and international position statements on e-cigarettes, health, and options for regulation, updated August 2020
  • Section 3.13 Musculoskeletal diseases, updated August 2020
  • Section 9.6 Smoking, ill health, financial stress and smoking-related poverty among highly disadvantaged groups, updated August 2020
  • Section 1.13 Smoking by Australian states and territories, updated August 2020
  • Section 13.2 Tobacco taxes in Australia, updated August 2020
  • Section 13.3 The price of tobacco products in Australia, updated August 2020
  • Section 3.32 Health effects of smoking other substances, updated August 2020
  • Section 10.5 Retailing of tobacco products in Australia, updated August 2020
  • Section 3.9 Increased susceptibility to infection in smokers, updated August 2020
  • Section 7.7 Factors that predict success or failure in quit attempts, updated August 2020
  • Section  7.12 Smoking and mental health, updated August 2020
  • Section 7.19 Interventions for particular groups, updated August 2020
  • Section 7.6 How smokers go about quitting, updated August 2020
  • Section 7.4 What finally prompts smokers to attempt to quit?, updated August 2020
  • Section 7.2 Quitting activity, updated August 2020
  • Section 1.2 Overview of major Australian data sets, updated August 2020
  • Section 1.13 Smoking by Australian states and territories, updated August 2020
  • Section 1.7 Trends in the prevalence of smoking by socio-economic status
  • Section 1.12 Prevalence of use of different types of tobacco product, updated August 2020
  • Section 18A.5 Regulating sale and promotion of smokeless tobacco, other jurisdictions, updated July 2020
  • Section 3.34 Public perceptions of tobacco as a drug, updated July 2020
  • Section 1.10 Prevalence of smoking in other high-risk sub-groups of the population, updated July 2020
  • Section 1.8 Trends in prevalence of smoking by country of birth, updated July 2020
  • Section 1.5 Prevalence of smoking - middle-aged and older adults, updated July 2020
  • Section 1.4 Prevalence of smoking - young adults, updated July 2020
  • Section 1.3 Prevalence of smoking - adults, updated July 2020
  • Section 18B.3 E-cigarettes; Extent of use, updated July 2020
  • Section 11.9.9 Public support for reducing retail promotion and access, updated July 2020
  • Section 10.17 Public attitudes to the tobacco industry, updated July 2020
  • Section 18A.2 Prevalence of use of smokeless tobacco in Australia, updated July 2020
  • Section 5.31 Uptake and Prevention: Other drug use, updated July 2020
  • Section 5.17 Factors influencing uptake of smoking later in life, updated July 2020
  • Section 3.31 Morbidity and mortality due to tobacco-caused disease and socio-economic disadvantage, updated July 2020
  • Section 2.4 Expenditure on tobacco products, updates July 2020
  • Section 3.9.11 Coronaviruses and the COVID-19 pandemic, updated July 2020
  • Section 13.3 The price of tobacco products in Australia, Figure 13.3.4, updated July 2020
  • Section 3.23 Smoking, dementia and cognition, updated July 2020
  • Section 3.17 Inflammatory conditions and autoimmune disease, updated June 2020
  • Section 3.5 Other cancers, updated June 2020
  • Section 3.22 Poorer quality of life and loss of function, updated June 2020
  • Section 3.16 Smoking and diabetes, updated June 2020
  • Section 3.9.11.2 COVID-19 pandemic, updated June 2020
  • Section 1.10, Fig1.10.1 Prevalence of smoking during any stage of pregnancy, updated June 2020
  • Section 3.14 Effects of smoking on the skin, updated June 2020
  • Section 3.10 Eye diseases, updated May 2020
  • Section 3.11 Dental diseases, updated May 2020
  • Section 3.19 Smoking and accidents, updated May 2020
  • Section 5.15 Tobacco advertising and promotion targeted at young people: updated May 2020
  • Section 18B.3 Extent of use: updated May 2020
  • Section 3.12 Gastro-intestinal diseases: updated May 2020
  • Section 3.3 Smoking and cancer: updated May 2020
  • Section 3.9 Increased susceptibility to infection in smokers: updated May 2020
  • Section 3.4 Lung cancer: updated May 2020
  • Section 3.20 Nicotine and carbon monoxide poisoning: updated May 2020
  • Section 18B.6 Potential negative impacts of e-cigarettes: updated May 2020
  • Section 18B.7 Potential positive impacts of e-cigarettes: updated April 2020
  • Chapter 19 The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: updated April 2020
  • Section 5.14 Opportunity to smoke: updated April 2020
  • Section 3.15 The impact of smoking on treatment of disease: updated April 2020
  • Section 18B.2 Advertising and promotion of e-cigarettes: updated April 2020
  • Section 18B.11 Public perceptions of e-cigarettes: updated April 2020
  • Section 5.13 Products and packaging created to appeal to new users: updated April 2020
  • Section 10.7 Market share and brand share in Australia: updated April 2020
  • Section 7.14 Cessation assistance: telephone- and internet-based interventions: updated March 2020
  • Section 7.15 Individual and group-based cessation assistance: updated April 2020
  • Section 7.1 Health and other benefits of quitting: updated March 2020
  • Section 7.16 Pharmacotherapies: updated March 2020
  • Section 9.3 Contribution of smoking to health inequality: updated March 2020
  • Section 3.26 Health effects of brands of tobacco which claim or imply delivery of lower levels of tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide: updated February 2020
  • Section 3.31 Morbidity and mortality due to tobacco-caused disease and socio-economic disadvantage: updated February 2020
  • Section 15.7.10 Summary of smokefree legislation across Australian states and territories: updated February 2020
  • Section 1.10.5 The prison population updated: February 2020
  • Section 9.6.6 Prison populations: updated February 2020
  • Section 7.19.10 Prisoners and others involved in the criminal justice system: updated February 2020
  • Section 5.12 Affordability of tobacco products: updated February 2020
  • Section 11.9.7.1 Types of licences: updated February 2020
  • Section 3.6 Reproductive health: updated February 2020
  • Section 3.7 Pregnancy and smoking: updated February 2020
  • Section 3.8 Child health and maternal smoking before and after birth: updated February 2020
  • Section 1.9 Prevalence of tobacco use among Aboriginal peoples and Torres Strait Islanders: updated February 2020
  • Section 16.4 Criminal cases against the tobacco industry: updated January 2020
  • Chapter 17 The economics of tobacco control: updated January 2020
  • Chapter 19 The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: updated January 2020
  • Section 8.3 Prevalence of tobacco use among Aboriginal peoples and Torres Strait Islanders: updated January 2020
  • Earlier updates